Program to read a Non-Linear equation in one variable, then evaluate it using Bisection Method and display its kD accurate root

``` /*************************************************************************

A C++ Program to read a Non-Linear equation in one variable, then
evaluate it using Bisection Method and display its kD accurate root.

*************************************************************************/

# include <iostream.h>
# include <string.h>
# include <stdlib.h>
# include <conio.h>
# include <math.h>

const int max_size=30;

int top=-1;
int accuracy=0;
int iterations=0;

long double a=0;
long double b=0;
long double x=0;

char Non_linear_equation[100]={NULL};
char Stack[max_size][max_size]={NULL};
char Postfix_expression[max_size][max_size]={NULL};

//-----------------------  Function Prototypes  -------------------------//

void push(const char *);
void convert_infix_expression_to_postfix_expression(const char *);

const char* pop( );
const long double evaluate_postfix_expression(const long double);
const int calculate_number_of_iterations_for_kd_accuracy( );

void show_screen( );
void clear_screen( );
void get_input_non_linear_equation( );
void apply_bisection_method( );
void show_result( );

//------------------------------  main( )  ------------------------------//

int main( )
{
clrscr( );
textmode(C4350);

show_screen( );
get_input_non_linear_equation( );
apply_bisection_method( );
show_result( );

getch( );
return 0;
}

//----------------------  Function Definitions  -------------------------//

//--------------------------  push(const char*)  ------------------------//

void push(const char* Operand)
{
if(top==(max_size-1))
{
cout<<\"Error : Stack is full.\"<<endl;
cout<<\"\\n        Press any key to exit.\";

getch( );
exit(0);
}

else
{
top++;
strcpy(Stack[top],Operand);
}
}

//------------------------------  pop( )  -------------------------------//

const char* pop( )
{
char Operand[40]={NULL};

if(top==-1)
{
cout<<\"Error : Stack is empty.\"<<endl;
cout<<\"\\n        Press any key to exit.\";

getch( );
exit(0);
}

else
{
strcpy(Operand,Stack[top]);
strset(Stack[top],NULL);
top--;
}

return Operand;
}

//----  convert_infix_expression_to_postfix_expression(const char*)  ----//

void convert_infix_expression_to_postfix_expression(const char* Expression)
{
char Infix_expression[100]={NULL};
char Symbol_scanned[30]={NULL};

push(\"(\");
strcpy(Infix_expression,Expression);
strcat(Infix_expression,\"+0)\");

int flag=0;
int count_1=0;
int count_2=0;
int equation_length=strlen(Infix_expression);

if(Infix_expression[0]==\'(\')
flag=1;

do
{
strset(Symbol_scanned,NULL);

if(flag==0)
{
int count_3=0;

do
{
Symbol_scanned[count_3]=Infix_expression[count_1];

count_1++;
count_3++;
}
while(count_1<=equation_length &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'(\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'+\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'-\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'*\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'/\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'^\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\')\');

flag=1;
}

else if(flag==1)
{
Symbol_scanned[0]=Infix_expression[count_1];

count_1++;

if(Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'(\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'^\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'*\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'/\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'+\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'-\' &&
Infix_expression[count_1]!=\')\')
flag=0;

if(Infix_expression[count_1-1]==\'(\' &&
(Infix_expression[count_1]==\'-\' ||
Infix_expression[count_1]==\'+\'))
flag=0;
}

if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"(\")==0)
push(\"(\");

else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\")\")==0)
{
while(strcmp(Stack[top],\"(\")!=0)
{
strcpy(Postfix_expression[count_2],pop( ));

count_2++;
}

pop( );
}

else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"^\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"+\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"-\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"*\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"/\")==0)
{
if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"^\")==0)
{  }

else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"*\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"/\")==0)
{
while(strcmp(Stack[top],\"^\")==0 ||
strcmp(Stack[top],\"*\")==0 ||
strcmp(Stack[top],\"/\")==0)
{
strcpy(Postfix_expression[count_2],pop( ));

count_2++;
}
}

else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"+\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"-\")==0)
{
while(strcmp(Stack[top],\"(\")!=0)
{
strcpy(Postfix_expression[count_2],pop( ));

count_2++;
}
}

push(Symbol_scanned);
}

else
{
strcat(Postfix_expression[count_2],Symbol_scanned);

count_2++;
}
}
while(strcmp(Stack[top],NULL)!=0);

strcat(Postfix_expression[count_2],\"=\");
count_2++;
}

//----------  evaluate_postfix_expression(const long double)  -----------//

const long double evaluate_postfix_expression(const long double x)
{
long double function_value=0;

int count_1=-1;

char Symbol_scanned[30]={NULL};

do
{
count_1++;

strcpy(Symbol_scanned,Postfix_expression[count_1]);

if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"^\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"*\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"/\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"+\")==0 ||
strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"-\")==0)

{
char Result[30]={NULL};
char Operand[2][30]={NULL};

strcpy(Operand[0],pop( ));
strcpy(Operand[1],pop( ));

long double operand[2]={0};
long double result=0;

char *endptr;

for(int count_2=0;count_2<2;count_2++)
{
int flag=0;

if(Operand[count_2][0]==\'-\')
{
int length=strlen(Operand[count_2]);

for(int count_3=0;count_3<(length-1);count_3++)
Operand[count_2][count_3]=Operand[count_2][(count_3+1)];

Operand[count_2][count_3]=NULL;

flag=1;
}

if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"x\")==0)
operand[count_2]=x;

else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"e\")==0)
operand[count_2]=2.718282;

else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"sinx\")==0)
operand[count_2]=sinl(x);

else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"cosx\")==0)
operand[count_2]=cosl(x);

else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"tanx\")==0)
operand[count_2]=tanl(x);

else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"lnx\")==0)
operand[count_2]=logl(x);

else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"logx\")==0)
operand[count_2]=log10l(x);

else
operand[count_2]=strtod(Operand[count_2],&endptr);

if(flag)
operand[count_2]*=-1;
}

switch(Symbol_scanned[0])
{
case \'^\' : result=powl(operand[1],operand[0]);
break;

case \'*\' : result=operand[1]*operand[0];
break;

case \'/\' : result=operand[1]/operand[0];
break;

case \'+\' : result=operand[1]+operand[0];
break;

case \'-\' : result=operand[1]-operand[0];
break;
}

gcvt(result,25,Result);

push(Result);
}

else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"=\")!=0)
push(Symbol_scanned);
}
while(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"=\")!=0);

char Function_value[30]={NULL};
char *endptr;

strcpy(Function_value,pop( ));
function_value=strtod(Function_value,&endptr);

return function_value;
}

//--------------------------  show_screen( )  ---------------------------//

void show_screen( )
{
cprintf(\"\\n********************************************************************************\");
cprintf(\"****************************-                    -******************************\");
cprintf(\"*---------------------------- \");

textbackground(1);
cprintf(\" Bisection Method \");
textbackground(8);

cprintf(\" ------------------------------*\");
cprintf(\"****************************-                    -******************************\");
cprintf(\"********************************************************************************\");

for(int count=0;count<42;count++)
cprintf(\"*                                                                              *\");

gotoxy(1,46);
cprintf(\"********************************************************************************\");
cprintf(\"*------------------------------------------------------------------------------*\");
cprintf(\"********************************************************************************\");

gotoxy(1,2);
}

//-------------------------  clear_screen( )  ---------------------------//

void clear_screen( )
{
for(int count=0;count<37;count++)
{
gotoxy(3,8+count);
cout<<\"                                                                            \";
}

gotoxy(1,2);
}

//------------------- get_input_non_linear_equation( )  -----------------//

void get_input_non_linear_equation( )
{
gotoxy(4,11);
cout<<\"Non-Linear Equation with One Variable:\";

gotoxy(4,12);
cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

gotoxy(6,37);
cout<<\"Note : Write the function with proper Braces ( ) e.g; 2x+3 as (2*x)+3\";

gotoxy(6,40);
cout<<\"Available Operators  :  ^ (raised to power) , * , / , + , -\";

gotoxy(6,42);
cout<<\"Available Operands   :  x , e , sinx , cosx , tanx , lnx , logx ,\";

gotoxy(6,44);
cout<<\"                        n = any number\";

gotoxy(4,14);
cout<<\"Enter the Function with variabel x = f(x) = \";
cin>>Non_linear_equation;

gotoxy(4,19);
cout<<\"Interval [a,b] where the root x lies :\";

gotoxy(4,20);
cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

gotoxy(4,22);
cout<<\"Enter the value of a  =  \";
cin>>a;

gotoxy(4,24);
cout<<\"Enter the value of b  =  \";
cin>>b;

gotoxy(4,28);
cout<<\"Enter the number of accuracy required = k =  \";
cin>>accuracy;

gotoxy(1,2);
}

//---------  calculate_number_of_iterations_for_kd_accuracy( )  ---------//

const int calculate_number_of_iterations_for_kd_accuracy( )
{
long double iterations=0;

iterations=((log10l(2)+log10l(b-a)+accuracy)/log10l(2));

return ceill(iterations);
}

//---------------------  apply_bisection_method( )  ---------------------//

void apply_bisection_method( )
{
clear_screen( );

gotoxy(4,10);
cout<<\"Solution :\";

gotoxy(4,11);
cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

convert_infix_expression_to_postfix_expression(Non_linear_equation);

int k=calculate_number_of_iterations_for_kd_accuracy( );

iterations=k;

gotoxy(4,13);
cout<<\"ÚÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿\";

gotoxy(4,14);
cout<<\"³n ³      a      ³     Xm      ³      b      ³    f(Xm)    ³  Accuracy   ³\";

gotoxy(4,15);
cout<<\"ÃÄÄÅÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÅÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÅÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÅÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÅÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ\";

gotoxy(4,16);
cout<<\"³  ³             ³             ³             ³             ³             ³\";

long double a=::a;
long double b=::b;
long double old_x=0;
long double new_x=x;
long double fx=0;
long double fa=0;

int x_cord=4;
int y_cord=17;

for(int count_1=1;count_1<=k;count_1++)
{
gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
cout<<\"³  ³             ³             ³             ³             ³             ³\";

gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord+1));
cout<<\"³  ³             ³             ³             ³             ³             ³\";

old_x=new_x;
new_x=((a+b)/2);

gotoxy((x_cord+1),y_cord);
cout<<count_1;

gotoxy((x_cord+4),y_cord);
cout<<a;

gotoxy((x_cord+18),y_cord);
cout<<new_x;

gotoxy((x_cord+32),y_cord);
cout<<b;

fx=evaluate_postfix_expression(new_x);
fa=evaluate_postfix_expression(a);

gotoxy((x_cord+46),y_cord);
cout<<fx;

gotoxy((x_cord+60),y_cord);
cout<<(new_x-old_x);

if(fx==0)
break;

else if((fa*fx)<0)
b=new_x;

else
a=new_x;

y_cord+=2;

if((count_1%12)==0 && count_1<k)
{
y_cord=17;

gotoxy(30,44);
cout<<\"Press any key to continue...\";
getch( );

for(int count_2=1;count_2<25;count_2++)
{
gotoxy(3,(16+count_2));
cout<<\"                                                                            \";
}
}
}

gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
cout<<\"ÀÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÙ\";

x=new_x;

gotoxy(30,44);
cout<<\"Press any key to continue...\";
getch( );
}

//---------------------------  show_result( )  --------------------------//

void show_result( )
{
clear_screen( );

gotoxy(6,10);
cout<<\"Function of Non-Linear Equation :\";

gotoxy(6,11);
cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

gotoxy(10,13);
cout<<\"f(x)  =  \"<<Non_linear_equation;

gotoxy(6,17);
cout<<\"Interval [a,b]  =  [ \"<<a<<\" , \"<<b<<\" ]\";

gotoxy(6,19);
cout<<\"Accuracy Required = kD =  \"<<accuracy<<\"D\";

gotoxy(6,25);
cout<<\"Required Root :\";

gotoxy(6,26);
cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

gotoxy(10,28);
cout<<\"x  =  \"<<x;

gotoxy(10,30);
cout<<\"Number of Iterations  =  \"<<iterations;

gotoxy(1,2);
}
```