C++ Programming Tutorial

 
 
 
 

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 # include <iostream.h>
 # include <string.h>
 # include <stdlib.h>
 # include <conio.h>
 # include <ctype.h>
 # include <math.h>
 # include <dos.h>

 const int max_size=30;
 const int table_size=12;

 int top=-1;
 int n=0;
 int order=0;
 int input_choice=0;

 long double x0=0;
 long double difference=0;

 long double x_values[table_size]={0};
 long double difference_table[table_size][table_size]={0};

 char Non_linear_equation[100]={NULL};
 char Stack[max_size][max_size]={NULL};
 char Postfix_expression[max_size][max_size]={NULL};


 void push(const char *);
 void convert_infix_expression_to_postfix_expression(const char *);

 const char* pop( );
 const long double evaluate_postfix_expression(const long double);

 void show_screen( );
 void clear_screen( );
 void get_input_mode( );
 void get_input_non_linear_equation( );
 void get_input_table( );
 void construct_difference_table( );
 void show_difference_table( );
 void compute_and_display_difference_operators( );


 int main( )
    {
       clrscr( );
       textmode(C4350);

       show_screen( );
       get_input_mode( );
       construct_difference_table( );
       show_difference_table( );
       compute_and_display_difference_operators( );

       return 0;
    }


 //--------------------------  push(const char*)  ------------------------//


 void push(const char* Operand)
    {
       if(top==(max_size-1))
      {
         cout<<\"Error : Stack is full.\"<<endl;
         cout<<\"\\n        Press any key to exit.\";

         getch( );
         exit(0);
      }

       else
      {
         top++;
         strcpy(Stack[top],Operand);
      }
    }


 //------------------------------  pop( )  -------------------------------//


 const char* pop( )
    {
       char Operand[40]={NULL};

       if(top==-1)
      {
         cout<<\"Error : Stack is empty.\"<<endl;
         cout<<\"\\n        Press any key to exit.\";

         getch( );
         exit(0);
      }

       else
      {
         strcpy(Operand,Stack[top]);
         strset(Stack[top],NULL);
         top--;
      }

       return Operand;
    }


 //----  convert_infix_expression_to_postfix_expression(const char*)  ----//


 void convert_infix_expression_to_postfix_expression(const char* Expression)
    {
       char Infix_expression[100]={NULL};
       char Symbol_scanned[30]={NULL};

       push(\"(\");
       strcpy(Infix_expression,Expression);
       strcat(Infix_expression,\"+0)\");

       int flag=0;
       int count_1=0;
       int count_2=0;
       int equation_length=strlen(Infix_expression);

       if(Infix_expression[0]==\'(\')
      flag=1;

       do
      {
         strset(Symbol_scanned,NULL);

         if(flag==0)
        {
           int count_3=0;

           do
              {
             Symbol_scanned[count_3]=Infix_expression[count_1];

             count_1++;
             count_3++;
              }
           while(count_1<=equation_length &&
               Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'(\' &&
                  Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'+\' &&
                 Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'-\' &&
                    Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'*\' &&
                       Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'/\' &&
                      Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'^\' &&
                         Infix_expression[count_1]!=\')\');


           flag=1;
        }

         else if(flag==1)
        {
           Symbol_scanned[0]=Infix_expression[count_1];

           count_1++;

           if(Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'(\' &&
             Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'^\' &&
                Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'*\' &&
                   Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'/\' &&
                  Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'+\' &&
                     Infix_expression[count_1]!=\'-\' &&
                    Infix_expression[count_1]!=\')\')
              flag=0;

           if(Infix_expression[count_1-1]==\'(\' &&
               (Infix_expression[count_1]==\'-\' ||
                 Infix_expression[count_1]==\'+\'))
              flag=0;
        }

         if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"(\")==0)
        push(\"(\");

         else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\")\")==0)
        {
           while(strcmp(Stack[top],\"(\")!=0)
              {
             strcpy(Postfix_expression[count_2],pop( ));

             count_2++;
              }

           pop( );
        }

         else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"^\")==0 ||
               strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"+\")==0 ||
                 strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"-\")==0 ||
                       strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"*\")==0 ||
                         strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"/\")==0)
        {
           if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"^\")==0)
              {  }

           else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"*\")==0 ||
                          strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"/\")==0)
              {
             while(strcmp(Stack[top],\"^\")==0 ||
                     strcmp(Stack[top],\"*\")==0 ||
                       strcmp(Stack[top],\"/\")==0)
                {
                   strcpy(Postfix_expression[count_2],pop( ));

                   count_2++;
                }
              }

           else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"+\")==0 ||
                    strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"-\")==0)
              {
             while(strcmp(Stack[top],\"(\")!=0)
                {
                   strcpy(Postfix_expression[count_2],pop( ));

                   count_2++;
                }
              }

           push(Symbol_scanned);
        }

         else
        {
           strcat(Postfix_expression[count_2],Symbol_scanned);

           count_2++;
        }
      }
       while(strcmp(Stack[top],NULL)!=0);

       strcat(Postfix_expression[count_2],\"=\");
       count_2++;
    }


 //---------  evaluate_postfix_expression(const long double)  ------------//


 const long double evaluate_postfix_expression(const long double x)
    {
       long double function_value=0;

       int count_1=-1;

       char Symbol_scanned[30]={NULL};

       do
      {
         count_1++;

         strcpy(Symbol_scanned,Postfix_expression[count_1]);

         if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"^\")==0 ||
              strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"*\")==0 ||
                strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"/\")==0 ||
                  strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"+\")==0 ||
                    strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"-\")==0)

        {
           char Result[30]={NULL};
           char Operand[2][30]={NULL};

           strcpy(Operand[0],pop( ));
           strcpy(Operand[1],pop( ));

           long double operand[2]={0};
           long double result=0;

           char *endptr;

           for(int count_2=0;count_2<2;count_2++)
              {
             int flag=0;

             if(Operand[count_2][0]==\'-\')
                {
                   int length=strlen(Operand[count_2]);

                   for(int count_3=0;count_3<(length-1);count_3++)
                  Operand[count_2][count_3]=Operand[count_2][(count_3+1)];

                   Operand[count_2][count_3]=NULL;

                   flag=1;
                }

             if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"x\")==0)
                operand[count_2]=x;

             else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"e\")==0)
                operand[count_2]=2.718282;

             else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"sinx\")==0)
                operand[count_2]=sinl(x);

             else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"cosx\")==0)
                operand[count_2]=cosl(x);

             else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"tanx\")==0)
                operand[count_2]=tanl(x);

             else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"lnx\")==0)
                operand[count_2]=logl(x);

             else if(strcmp(Operand[count_2],\"logx\")==0)
                operand[count_2]=log10l(x);

             else
                operand[count_2]=strtod(Operand[count_2],&endptr);

             if(flag)
                operand[count_2]*=-1;
              }

           switch(Symbol_scanned[0])
              {
             case \'^\' : result=powl(operand[1],operand[0]);
                    break;

             case \'*\' : result=operand[1]*operand[0];
                    break;

             case \'/\' : result=operand[1]/operand[0];
                    break;

             case \'+\' : result=operand[1]+operand[0];
                    break;

             case \'-\' : result=operand[1]-operand[0];
                    break;
              }

           gcvt(result,25,Result);

           push(Result);
        }

         else if(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"=\")!=0)
        push(Symbol_scanned);
      }
       while(strcmp(Symbol_scanned,\"=\")!=0);

       char Function_value[30]={NULL};
       char *endptr;

       strcpy(Function_value,pop( ));
       function_value=strtod(Function_value,&endptr);

       return function_value;
    }


 //--------------------------  show_screen( )  ---------------------------//


 void show_screen( )
    {
       cprintf(\"\\n********************************************************************************\");
       cprintf(\"****************************-                      -****************************\");
       cprintf(\"*---------------------------- \");

       textbackground(1);
       cprintf(\" Finite-Differences \");
       textbackground(8);

       cprintf(\" ----------------------------*\");
       cprintf(\"****************************-                      -****************************\");
       cprintf(\"********************************************************************************\");

       for(int count=0;count<42;count++)
      cprintf(\"*                                                                              *\");

       gotoxy(1,46);
       cprintf(\"********************************************************************************\");
       cprintf(\"*------------------------------------------------------------------------------*\");
       cprintf(\"********************************************************************************\");

       gotoxy(1,2);
    }


 //-------------------------  clear_screen( )  ---------------------------//


 void clear_screen( )
    {
       for(int count=0;count<37;count++)
      {
         gotoxy(3,8+count);
         cout<<\"                                                                            \";
      }

       gotoxy(1,2);
    }


 //-------------------------  get_input_mode( )  -------------------------//


 void get_input_mode( )
    {
       gotoxy(4,11);
       cout<<\"Input Mode :\";

       gotoxy(4,12);
       cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

       gotoxy(8,15);
       cout<<\"a)-  Press \`1\' to enter a function f(x).\";

       gotoxy(8,18);
       cout<<\"b)-  Press \`2\' to enter values of the function.\";

       do
      {
         gotoxy(8,25);
         cout<<\"Enter your choice =    \";
         gotoxy(28,25);

         input_choice=(int(getche( ))-48);

         if(input_choice!=1 && input_choice!=2)
        {
           sound(2500);
           delay(500);
           nosound( );
        }
      }
       while(input_choice!=1 && input_choice!=2);

       if(input_choice==1)
      get_input_non_linear_equation( );

       else if(input_choice==2)
      get_input_table( );

       gotoxy(1,2);
    }


 //------------------  get_input_non_linear_equation( )  -----------------//


 void get_input_non_linear_equation( )
    {
       clear_screen( );

       gotoxy(4,11);
       cout<<\"Non-Linear Function with One Variable:\";

       gotoxy(4,12);
       cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

       gotoxy(6,37);
       cout<<\"Note : Write the function with proper Braces ( ) e.g; 2x+3 as (2*x)+3\";

       gotoxy(6,40);
       cout<<\"Available Operators  :  ^ (raised to power) , * , / , + , -\";

       gotoxy(6,42);
       cout<<\"Available Operands   :  x , e , sinx , cosx , tanx , lnx , logx ,\";

       gotoxy(6,44);
       cout<<\"                        n = any number\";

       gotoxy(4,15);
       cout<<\"Enter the Function = f(x) = \";
       cin>>Non_linear_equation;

       gotoxy(4,20);
       cout<<\"Enter the initial value of x = x0 = \";
       cin>>x0;

       gotoxy(4,23);
       cout<<\"Enter the interval b/w two points = \";
       cin>>difference;

       gotoxy(4,28);
       cout<<\"                       [ Max. n = 12 ] \";

       gotoxy(4,26);
       cout<<\"Enter the total number of values = n =  \";
       cin>>n;

       if(n>12)
      n=12;

       convert_infix_expression_to_postfix_expression(Non_linear_equation);

       long double x=x0;

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<n;count_1++)
      {
         difference_table[0][count_1]=evaluate_postfix_expression(x);
         x_values[count_1]=x;

         x+=difference;
      }

       gotoxy(1,2);
    }


 //--------------------------  get_input_table( )  -----------------------//


 void get_input_table( )
    {
       clear_screen( );

       gotoxy(4,9);
       cout<<\"Table of Values for Function :\";

       gotoxy(4,10);
       cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

       gotoxy(4,14);
       cout<<\"                       [ Max. n = 12 ]\";

       gotoxy(4,12);
       cout<<\"Enter the total number of values = n = \";
       cin>>n;

       if(n>12)
      n=12;

       gotoxy(4,16);
       cout<<\"Enter the initial value of x = x0 = \";
       cin>>x0;

       gotoxy(4,18);
       cout<<\"Enter the interval b/w two points = \";
       cin>>difference;

       double x=x0;

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<n;count_1++)
      {
         x_values[count_1]=x;

         x+=difference;
      }

       int x_cord=45;
       int y_cord=19;

       gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord-4));
       cout<<\"ÚÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿\";

       gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord-3));
       cout<<\"³      Xi       ³    f(Xi)      ³\";

       gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord-2));
       cout<<\"ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÅÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ\";

       gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord-1));
       cout<<\"³               ³               ³\";

       gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
       cout<<\"³               ³               ³\";

       for(int count_2=0;count_2<n;count_2++)
      {
         gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord+1));
         cout<<\"³               ³               ³\";

         gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord+2));
         cout<<\"³               ³               ³\";

         y_cord+=2;
      }

       gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
       cout<<\"ÀÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÙ\";

       y_cord=19;

       for(int count_3=0;count_3<n;count_3++)
      {
         gotoxy((x_cord+2),y_cord);
         cout<<x_values[count_3];

         gotoxy((x_cord+18),y_cord);
         cin>>difference_table[0][count_3];

         y_cord+=2;
      }

       gotoxy(1,2);
    }


 //-------------------  construct_difference_table( )  -------------------//


 void construct_difference_table( )
    {
       int flag=0;

       for(int count_1=1;count_1<n;count_1++)
      {
         for(int count_2=count_1;count_2<n;count_2++)
        {
           long double fx1=difference_table[(count_1-1)][(count_2-1)];
           long double fx2=difference_table[(count_1-1)][count_2];

           difference_table[count_1][count_2]=fx2-fx1;
        }

         flag=1;

         for(int count_3=count_1;count_3<n;count_3++)
        {
           if(difference_table[count_1][count_3]!=0)
              {
             flag=0;

             break;
              }
        }

         if(flag)
        {
           order=count_1;

           break;
        }
      }

       if(count_1==n)
      order=(n-1);
    }


 //----------------------  show_difference_table( )  ---------------------//


 void show_difference_table( )
    {
       clear_screen( );

       gotoxy(4,10);
       cout<<\"Difference Table :\";

       gotoxy(4,11);
       cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

       gotoxy(4,13);
       cout<<\"ÚÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ\";

       gotoxy(4,14);
       cout<<\"³   x    ³     f(x)      \";

       gotoxy(4,15);
       cout<<\"ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÅÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ\";

       gotoxy(4,16);
       cout<<\"³        ³               \";

       int x_cord=4;
       int y_cord=17;

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<n;count_1++)
      {
         gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
         cout<<\"³        ³               \";

         gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord+1));
         cout<<\"³        ³               \";

         gotoxy((x_cord+2),y_cord);
         cout<<x_values[count_1];

         gotoxy((x_cord+11),y_cord);
         cout<<difference_table[0][count_1];

         y_cord+=2;
      }

       gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
       cout<<\"ÀÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ\";

       x_cord+=20;

       int count_2=0;

       for(int count_3=1;count_3<=order;count_3++)
      {
         gotoxy(x_cord,13);
         cout<<\"ÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ\";

         gotoxy(x_cord,14);
         cout<<\"³\";

         gotoxy(x_cord,15);
         cout<<\"ÅÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ\";

         gotoxy(x_cord,16);
         cout<<\"³\";

         gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
         cout<<\"ÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ\";

         gotoxy((x_cord+6),14);
         cout<<count_3;

         if(count_3==1)
        cout<<\"st\";

         else if(count_3==2)
        cout<<\"nd\";

         else if(count_3==3)
        cout<<\"rd\";

         else
        cout<<\"th\";

         y_cord=17;

         for(int count_4=0;count_4<n;count_4++)
        {
           gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
           cout<<\"³\";

           gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord+1));
           cout<<\"³\";

           if(count_4>=count_3)
              {
             gotoxy((x_cord+2),(y_cord-count_3));
             cout<<difference_table[count_3][count_4];
              }

           y_cord+=2;
        }

         x_cord+=16;
         count_2++;

         if((count_2%3)==0 && count_3<order)
        {
           gotoxy(x_cord,13);
           cout<<\"ÂÄÄ\";

           gotoxy(x_cord,14);
           cout<<\"³\";

           gotoxy(x_cord,15);
           cout<<\"ÅÄÄ\";

           gotoxy(x_cord,16);
           cout<<\"³\";

           gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
           cout<<\"ÁÄÄ\";

           y_cord=17;

           for(int count_5=0;count_5<n;count_5++)
              {
             gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
             cout<<\"³\";

             gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord+1));
             cout<<\"³\";

             y_cord+=2;
              }

           gotoxy(30,44);
           cout<<\"Press any key to continue...\";
           getch( );

           y_cord=13;
           x_cord=24;

           for(int count_6=0;count_6<=(n+2);count_6++)
              {
             gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
             cout<<\"                                                       \";

             gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord+1));
             cout<<\"                                                       \";

             y_cord+=2;
              }

           y_cord-=2;
           count_2=0;
           count_3--;
        }
      }

       gotoxy(x_cord,13);
       cout<<\"¿\";

       gotoxy(x_cord,14);
       cout<<\"³\";

       gotoxy(x_cord,16);
       cout<<\"³\";

       y_cord=17;

       for(int count_6=0;count_6<n;count_6++)
      {
         gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
         cout<<\"³\";

         gotoxy(x_cord,(y_cord+1));
         cout<<\"³\";

         y_cord+=2;
      }

       gotoxy(x_cord,15);
       cout<<\"\";

       gotoxy(x_cord,y_cord);
       cout<<\"Ù\";

       gotoxy(30,44);
       cout<<\"Press any key to continue...\";

       getch( );
    }


 //-----------  compute_and_display_difference_operators( )  -------------//


 void compute_and_display_difference_operators( )
    {
       clear_screen( );

       gotoxy(6,10);
       cout<<\"Difference Operators :\";

       gotoxy(6,11);
       cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

       gotoxy(10,13);
       cout<<\"E  =  Shift Operator\";

       gotoxy(10,15);
       cout<<\"D  =  Forward Difference Operator\";

       gotoxy(10,17);
       cout<<\"d  =  Backward Difference Operator\";

       gotoxy(6,20);
       cout<<\"Examples :\";

       gotoxy(6,21);
       cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

       gotoxy(10,23);
       cout<<\"Shift Operator :  Ef2 , E3f4 , E3f1\";

       gotoxy(10,25);
       cout<<\"Forward Difference Operator : Df3 , D2f1 , D3f0\";

       gotoxy(10,27);
       cout<<\"Backward Difference Operator : df3 , d2f3 , d4f4\";

       gotoxy(6,44);
       cout<<\"Note :  Enter \`0\' to exit, \`V\' to view Difference Table again.\";

       gotoxy(6,32);
       cout<<\"Calculate ?\";

       gotoxy(6,33);
       cout<<\"ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ\";

       char Operator[10]={NULL};
       long double value=0;

       do
      {
         strset(Operator,NULL);

         value=0;

         gotoxy(10,35);
         cout<<\"                                                   \";

         gotoxy(10,37);
         cout<<\"                                                  \";

         gotoxy(10,40);
         cout<<\"                                                  \";

         gotoxy(10,35);
         cout<<\"Operator  =  \";
         cin>>Operator;

         if(strcmp(Operator,\"v\")==0 || strcmp(Operator,\"V\")==0)
        {
           show_difference_table( );
           compute_and_display_difference_operators( );
        }

         else if(strcmp(Operator,\"0\")!=0)
        {
           if(Operator[0]==\'E\' || Operator[0]==\'D\' ||
                              Operator[0]==\'d\')
              {
             int flag=0;

             if(strchr(Operator,\'f\')==NULL)
                flag=1;

             if(Operator[0]==\'E\' && !flag)
                {
                   int fn=1;

                   char Temp[10]={NULL};

                   if(isdigit(Operator[1]))
                  {
                     strcpy(Temp,strtok(Operator,\"E\"));
                     strcpy(Temp,strtok(Temp,\"f\"));
                  }

                   fn=atoi(Temp);

                   if(strcmp(Temp,NULL)==0)
                  fn=1;

                   strset(Temp,NULL);

                   strtok(Operator,\"f\");

                   strcpy(Temp,strtok(NULL,NULL));

                   fn+=atoi(Temp);

                   if(fn>(n-1) || fn<0)
                  flag=1;

                   value=difference_table[0][fn];
                }

             else if(Operator[0]==\'D\' && !flag)
                {
                   int D=1;
                   int f=0;

                   char Temp[10]={NULL};

                   if(isdigit(Operator[1]))
                  {
                     strcpy(Temp,strtok(Operator,\"D\"));
                     strcpy(Temp,strtok(Temp,\"f\"));
                  }

                   D=atoi(Temp);

                   if(strcmp(Temp,NULL)==0)
                  D=1;

                   strset(Temp,NULL);

                   strtok(Operator,\"f\");

                   strcpy(Temp,strtok(NULL,NULL));

                   f=atoi(Temp);

                   if(D>(n-1) || D<=0 || (D+f)>(n-1) || D<0)
                  flag=1;

                   value=difference_table[D][(D+f)];
                }

             else if(Operator[0]==\'d\' && !flag)
                {
                   int d=1;
                   int f=0;

                   char Temp[10]={NULL};

                   if(isdigit(Operator[1]))
                  {
                     strcpy(Temp,strtok(Operator,\"d\"));
                     strcpy(Temp,strtok(Temp,\"f\"));
                  }

                   d=atoi(Temp);

                   if(strcmp(Temp,NULL)==0)
                  d=1;

                   strset(Temp,NULL);

                   strtok(Operator,\"f\");

                   strcpy(Temp,strtok(NULL,NULL));

                   f=atoi(Temp);

                   if(d>(n-1) || d<=0 || f<d || f>(n-1))
                  flag=1;

                   value=difference_table[d][f];
                }

             if(!flag)
                {
                   gotoxy(10,37);
                   cout<<\"Value  =  \"<<value;

                   gotoxy(25,40);
                   cout<<\"Press any key to continue...\";
                }

             else
                {
                   gotoxy(25,40);
                   cout<<\"Wrong Values. Try again...\";
                }
              }

           else
              {
             gotoxy(25,40);
             cout<<\"Wrong Operator. Try again...\";
              }

           getch( );
        }

         else if(strcmp(Operator,\"0\")==0)
        {
           gotoxy(1,2);

           delay(500);
           exit(0);
        }
      }
       while(1);
    }

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