C++ Programming Tutorial

 
 
 

Data File Structure Programs

Array

Insert, edit, delete, append, display, Srch. Insert, delete, merge, delete multiple occurrences Arrays as a Stack in graphics

Stack

Stack operations using array Stack using static memory allocation Stack using dynamic memory allocation Double ended link list as a stack Lnked list as a Stack Infix expr. to Postfix expr. Postfix expr. into an Infix expr. Arrays as a Stack in graphics Stack as an Arithmetic expr. Evaluater Graphical Rep. of Stack Stack to traverse - inodr, postodr, preodr

Queue

Queue using static memory allocation Queue using dynamic memory allocation Circular queue Linked list as a Queue Double Ended linked list as a Queue Graphical Rep. of Queue Arrays as a Linear Queue Array as a Circular Queue Arrays as a Linear Queue ( in graphics ) Arrays as a Circular Queue ( in graphics )

Linked List

Singly link list Circular linked list Doubly link list Linked list as a Queue Linked list as a Stack Double Ended linked list as a Queue Double Ended linked list as a Stack Infix to Postfix - Linked List as Stack Circular doubly link list Single Ended Linked List - Sorting in both odr Hashing - double ended Linked List Sort of link list

Tree

Linked List as a Binary Srch. Tree Set Class using Binary Srch. Tree Maximum depth of Binary Srch. Tree Minimum Spaning Tree Prims algo - minimum spanning tree Traverse binary tree - inodr, preodr, post Find number in binary Srch. tree display levell

Sorting

Bubble Sort Selection Sort Insertion Sort Radix Sort Merge Sort Quick Sort Heap Sort Linear Sort Shell Sort Topological Sort

Searching

Linear Srch. or Sequential Srch. Binary Search Breadth First Search Traversal Depth First Search Traversal Shortest Path-Given Source-Destination-Dijkstras

Hashing

Simple implementation of Hashing Hashing using double-ended Linked List Hashing using Mid-Square Method Example of Hashing n term of the fibonacci series using recursion

Recursion

Factorial of the given number using recursion Mystery of Towers of Hanoi using recursion
 
 
 #include <iostream.h>
 #include <graphics.h>
 #include <string.h>
 #include <stdlib.h>
 #include <conio.h>
 #include <math.h>
 #include <dos.h>

 const max_length=10;


 class Evaluator
    {
       private:
        char infix_expression[25][6];
        char postfix_expression[25][6];

        char char_stack[10];
        long int_stack[max_length];

        int int_top;
        int char_top;

        int postfix_rows;
        int infix_rows;

        int input_characters_count;

       public:
        void set_initial_values( );
        void show_main_screen( );
        void get_infix_expression( );
        void show_infix_screen( );
        void char_push(char);
        char char_pop( );
        void show_char_stack(int);
        void show_explanation(int);
        void show_infix_to_postfix_convertion( );
        void int_push(long);
        long int_pop( );
        void show_int_stack(int);
        void show_postfix_screen ( );
        void show_evaluation_of_postfix_expression( );
        void show_summary( );
    };



 /***********************  Function Definitions  **************************/




 //----------------------- set_initial_values( )  ------------------------//


 void Evaluator::set_initial_values( )
    {
       int_top=-1;
       char_top=-1;
       infix_rows=0;
       postfix_rows=0;

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<max_length;count_1++)
      {
         int_stack[count_1]=0;
         char_stack[count_1]=\'\\0\';
      }

       for(int count_2=0;count_2<25;count_2++)
      {
         for(int count_3=0;count_3<6;count_3++)
        {
           infix_expression[count_2][count_3]=\'\\0\';
           postfix_expression[count_2][count_3]=\'\\0\';
        }
      }
    }


 //-----------------------  show_main_screen( )  -------------------------//


 void Evaluator::show_main_screen( )
    {
       cleardevice( );

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<340;count_1+=20)
      {
         setfillstyle(6,1);
           bar(getmaxx( )/2-count_1,getmaxy( )/2-count_1,
                   getmaxx( )/2+count_1,getmaxy( )/2+count_1);
      }

       for(int count_2=0;count_2<15;count_2++)
      {
         setcolor(count_2);
           rectangle(5+count_2,count_2+5,getmaxx( )-5-count_2,
                               getmaxy( )-5-count_2);
         delay(10);
      }

       delay(500);

       char expression[10][2]={\"E\",\"x\",\"p\",\"r\",\"e\",\"s\",\"s\",\"i\",\"o\",\"n\"};

       int x=80;
       int y=50;

       for(int count_3=0;count_3<10;count_3++)
      {
         settextstyle(1,0,8);
           setcolor(0);

           moveto(x-3,y+2);
         outtext(expression[count_3]);

           moveto(x-2,y+2);
         outtext(expression[count_3]);

           moveto(x-1,y+2);
         outtext(expression[count_3]);

           setcolor(12);

           moveto(x,y);
         outtext(expression[count_3]);

           moveto(x+1,y);
         outtext(expression[count_3]);

           moveto(x+2,y);
         outtext(expression[count_3]);

           moveto(x+3,y);
         outtext(expression[count_3]);

         x=getx( );
         delay(150);
      }

       delay(500);

       char evaluator[9][10]={\"r\",\"or\",\"tor\",\"ator\",\"uator\",\"luator\",
                  \"aluator\",\"valuator\",\"Evaluator\"};

       for(int count_4=0;count_4<9;count_4++)
      {
         settextstyle(1,0,8);
           setcolor(0);
         outtextxy(217,122,evaluator[count_4]);
         outtextxy(218,122,evaluator[count_4]);
         outtextxy(219,122,evaluator[count_4]);

           setcolor(12);
         outtextxy(220,120,evaluator[count_4]);
         outtextxy(221,120,evaluator[count_4]);
         outtextxy(222,120,evaluator[count_4]);
         outtextxy(223,120,evaluator[count_4]);

         delay(150);

         if(count_4<8)
        {
           setfillstyle(6,1);
             bar(210,140,580,200);
        }
      }

       delay(500);

       settextstyle(1,0,4);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(150,52,\"Arithmetic\");
       outtextxy(151,52,\"Arithmetic\");

     setcolor(12);
       outtextxy(152,50,\"Arithmetic\");
       outtextxy(153,50,\"Arithmetic\");

       delay(500);

       setcolor(15);
     line(495,415,580,415);
     line(496,416,580,416);

     line(495,449,580,449);
     line(496,448,580,448);

     line(495,415,495,449);
     line(496,417,496,448);

     arc(580,432,270,90,17);
     arc(580,432,270,90,16);

       setcolor(7);
     line(497,417,580,417);
     line(498,418,580,418);

     line(497,447,580,447);
     line(498,446,580,446);

     line(497,417,497,447);
     line(498,418,498,446);

     arc(580,432,270,90,15);
     arc(580,432,270,90,14);

       setcolor(8);
     line(499,419,580,419);
     line(499,445,580,445);
     line(499,419,499,445);

     arc(580,432,270,90,13);

       setcolor(9);
       setfillstyle(1,9);
     bar(500,420,580,444);

     pieslice(580,432,0,360,12);

       settextstyle(2,0,6);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(508,422,\"Evaluate\");
       outtextxy(509,422,\"Evaluate\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(510,420,\"Evaluate\");
       outtextxy(511,420,\"Evaluate\");

       setcolor(15);
     line(425,415,490,415);
     line(426,416,489,416);

     line(425,449,490,449);
     line(426,448,489,448);

     line(490,415,490,449);
     line(489,416,489,448);

     arc(430,432,90,270,17);
     arc(430,432,90,270,16);

       setcolor(7);
     line(427,417,488,417);
     line(428,418,487,418);

     line(427,447,488,447);
     line(428,446,487,446);

     line(488,417,488,447);
     line(487,418,487,446);

     arc(430,432,90,270,15);
     arc(430,432,90,270,14);

       setcolor(8);
     line(429,419,486,419);
     line(429,445,486,445);
     line(486,419,486,445);

     arc(430,432,90,270,13);

       setcolor(9);
       setfillstyle(1,9);
     bar(430,420,485,444);

     pieslice(430,432,0,360,12);

       settextstyle(2,0,6);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(433,422,\"Exit\");
       outtextxy(434,422,\"Exit\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(435,420,\"Exit\");
       outtextxy(436,420,\"Exit\");

       setcolor(15);
       settextstyle(0,0,1);
     outtextxy(30,425,\"* Copyright  (C) 2000-01\");
     outtextxy(30,440,\"* Muhammad Tahir Shahzad\");

       int count_5=0;
       int key_code=0;

       char key=\'\\0\';

       do
     {
         delay(500);

         key=\'\\0\';
         key_code=0;

         if(kbhit( ))
        key=getch( );

         key_code=int(key);

         if(count_5%2==0)
        {
           settextstyle(0,0,1);
             setcolor(1);
               outtextxy(435,400,\"<Esc>\");

             setcolor(4);
               outtextxy(515,400,\"<Enter>\");
        }

         else if(count_5%2==1)
        {
           settextstyle(0,0,1);
             setcolor(4);
               outtextxy(435,400,\"<Esc>\");

             setcolor(1);
               outtextxy(515,400,\"<Enter>\");
        }

         count_5++;
     }
       while(key_code!=13 && key_code!=27);

       if(key_code==13)
      {
         settextstyle(0,0,1);
           setcolor(1);
         outtextxy(435,400,\"<Esc>\");

           setcolor(4);
         outtextxy(515,400,\"<Enter>\");

         setcolor(12);
         setfillstyle(1,12);
           bar(500,420,580,444);

           pieslice(580,432,0,360,12);

         settextstyle(2,0,6);
           setcolor(0);
         outtextxy(508,422,\"Evaluate\");
         outtextxy(509,422,\"Evaluate\");

           setcolor(14);
         outtextxy(510,420,\"Evaluate\");
         outtextxy(511,420,\"Evaluate\");

         delay(500);

         setcolor(9);
         setfillstyle(1,9);
           bar(500,420,580,444);

           pieslice(580,432,0,360,12);

         settextstyle(2,0,6);
           setcolor(0);
         outtextxy(508,422,\"Evaluate\");
         outtextxy(509,422,\"Evaluate\");

           setcolor(14);
         outtextxy(510,420,\"Evaluate\");
         outtextxy(511,420,\"Evaluate\");
      }

       else if(key_code==27)
      {
         settextstyle(0,0,1);
           setcolor(4);
         outtextxy(435,400,\"<Esc>\");

           setcolor(1);
         outtextxy(515,400,\"<Enter>\");

         setcolor(12);
         setfillstyle(1,12);
           bar(430,420,485,444);

           pieslice(430,432,0,360,12);

         settextstyle(2,0,6);
           setcolor(0);
         outtextxy(433,422,\"Exit\");
         outtextxy(434,422,\"Exit\");

           setcolor(14);
         outtextxy(435,420,\"Exit\");
         outtextxy(436,420,\"Exit\");

         delay(500);

         setcolor(9);
         setfillstyle(1,9);
           bar(430,420,485,444);

           pieslice(430,432,0,360,12);

         settextstyle(2,0,6);
           setcolor(0);
         outtextxy(433,422,\"Exit\");
         outtextxy(434,422,\"Exit\");

           setcolor(14);
         outtextxy(435,420,\"Exit\");
         outtextxy(436,420,\"Exit\");

         delay(500);
         exit(0);
      }

       delay(500);
       cleardevice( );
    }


 //-----------------------  get_infix_expression( )  ---------------------//


 void Evaluator::get_infix_expression( )
    {
       setfillstyle(1,6);
     bar(0,0,getmaxx( ),getmaxy( ));

       setfillstyle(1,3);
     bar(5,5,getmaxx( )-5,getmaxy( )-5);

       setfillstyle(6,1);
     bar(10,10,getmaxx( )-10,getmaxy( )-10);

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<3;count_1++)
      {
         setcolor(1);
           settextstyle(4,0,10);
         outtextxy(20-count_1,50-count_1,\"+\");
         outtextxy(420-count_1,20,\"^\");
         outtextxy(100-count_1,150,\"*\");
         outtextxy(550-count_1,100-count_1,\"-\");
         outtextxy(320-count_1,20,\"/\");
         outtextxy(250-count_1,140,\"(\");
         outtextxy(500-count_1,250,\")\");

           settextstyle(1,0,10);
         outtextxy(70-count_1,320,\"0\");
         outtextxy(550-count_1,-20,\"1\");
         outtextxy(150-count_1,100,\"2\");
         outtextxy(450-count_1,100,\"3\");
         outtextxy(220-count_1,-20,\"4\");
         outtextxy(570-count_1,220,\"5\");
         outtextxy(360-count_1,170,\"6\");
         outtextxy(200-count_1,335,\"7\");
         outtextxy(20-count_1,-10,\"8\");
         outtextxy(400-count_1,320,\"9\");
      }

       settextstyle(1,0,4);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(150,52,\"Arithmetic\");
       outtextxy(151,52,\"Arithmetic\");

     setcolor(12);
       outtextxy(152,50,\"Arithmetic\");
       outtextxy(153,50,\"Arithmetic\");

       settextstyle(1,0,8);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(77,52,\"Expression\");
       outtextxy(78,52,\"Expression\");
       outtextxy(79,52,\"Expression\");

     setcolor(12);
       outtextxy(80,50,\"Expression\");
       outtextxy(81,50,\"Expression\");
       outtextxy(82,50,\"Expression\");
       outtextxy(83,50,\"Expression\");

       settextstyle(1,0,8);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(217,122,\"Evaluator\");
       outtextxy(218,122,\"Evaluator\");
       outtextxy(219,122,\"Evaluator\");

     setcolor(12);
       outtextxy(220,120,\"Evaluator\");
       outtextxy(221,120,\"Evaluator\");
       outtextxy(222,120,\"Evaluator\");
       outtextxy(223,120,\"Evaluator\");

       settextstyle(6,0,4);
     setcolor(8);
       outtextxy(28,262,\"Enter the Infix Expression :\");
       outtextxy(29,262,\"Enter the Infix Expression :\");

     setcolor(10);
       outtextxy(30,260,\"Enter the Infix Expression :\");
       outtextxy(31,260,\"Enter the Infix Expression :\");
       outtextxy(32,260,\"Enter the Infix Expression :\");

       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(29,305,595,375);
     rectangle(30,306,594,374);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(31,307,593,373);
     rectangle(32,308,592,372);
     rectangle(33,309,591,371);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(34,310,590,370);

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(35,311,589,369);

       int flag=0;
       int count_2=-1;
       int number_length=0;
       int operand_count=0;
       int operator_count=0;
       int expression_right_wrong=1;
       int left_parenthesis_count=0;
       int right_parenthesis_count=0;

       do
      {
         set_initial_values( );

         flag=0;
         count_2=-1;
         number_length=0;
         operand_count=0;
         operator_count=0;
         input_characters_count=0;
         expression_right_wrong=1;
         left_parenthesis_count=0;
         right_parenthesis_count=0;

         do
        {
           if(infix_expression[0][0]==\'\\0\')
              {
             while(!kbhit( ))
                {
                   setcolor(14);
                   settextstyle(1,0,4);
                 outtextxy(40,313,\"Þ\");
                 outtextxy(40,327,\"Þ\");

                   delay(250);

                   setfillstyle(0,0);
                 bar(35,311,589,369);

                   delay(300);
                }
              }

           char temp_expression[2]={\'\\0\'};

           temp_expression[0]=getch( );

           if( (int(temp_expression[0])>=48 &&
                int(temp_expression[0])<=57) && number_length<5 )
              {
             if(flag==0)
                {
                   count_2++;
                   strcpy(infix_expression[count_2],
                                temp_expression);
                   flag=1;
                   operand_count++;
                }

             else if(flag==1)
                strcat(infix_expression[count_2],temp_expression);

             number_length++;
              }

           else if( temp_expression[0]==\'^\' || temp_expression[0]==\'/\'
             || temp_expression[0]==\'*\' || temp_expression[0]==\'-\'
             || temp_expression[0]==\'+\' || temp_expression[0]==\'(\'
                           || temp_expression[0]==\')\')
              {
             count_2++;

             strcpy(infix_expression[count_2],temp_expression);

             flag=0;
             number_length=0;

             if(temp_expression[0]==\'(\')
                left_parenthesis_count++;

             if(temp_expression[0]==\')\')
                right_parenthesis_count++;

             if(temp_expression[0]!=\'(\' &&
                             temp_expression[0]!=\')\')
                operator_count++;
              }

           if(int(temp_expression[0])==8 && count_2>=0)
              {
             setfillstyle(1,0);
               bar(35,311,589,369);

             if(int(infix_expression[count_2][0])>=48 &&
                       int(infix_expression[count_2][0])<=57)
                operand_count--;

             if(infix_expression[count_2][0]==\'^\' ||
                   infix_expression[count_2][0]==\'/\' ||
                  infix_expression[count_2][0]==\'*\' ||
                     infix_expression[count_2][0]==\'-\' ||
                    infix_expression[count_2][0]==\'+\' )
                operator_count--;

             if(infix_expression[count_2][0]==\'(\')
                left_parenthesis_count--;

             if(infix_expression[count_2][0]==\')\')
                right_parenthesis_count--;

             for(int count_3=0;count_3<6;count_3++)

             strset(infix_expression[count_2],NULL);

             count_2--;
             input_characters_count--;
             flag=0;
              }

           if(int(temp_expression[0])==13)
              break;

           if(int(temp_expression[0])==27)
              {
             infix_expression[25][6]=\'$\';
             break;
              }

           if(operand_count<operator_count)
              {
             infix_expression[25][6]=\'$\';
             break;
              }

           if(!left_parenthesis_count && right_parenthesis_count)
              {
             count_2++;
             break;
              }

           if(temp_expression[0]!=\'^\' && temp_expression[0]!=\'/\' &&
              temp_expression[0]!=\'*\' && temp_expression[0]!=\'-\' &&
              temp_expression[0]!=\'(\' && temp_expression[0]!=\')\' &&
              temp_expression[0]!=\'+\' && temp_expression[0]!=\'0\' &&
              temp_expression[0]!=\'1\' && temp_expression[0]!=\'2\' &&
              temp_expression[0]!=\'3\' && temp_expression[0]!=\'4\' &&
              temp_expression[0]!=\'5\' && temp_expression[0]!=\'6\' &&
              temp_expression[0]!=\'7\' && temp_expression[0]!=\'8\' &&
              temp_expression[0]!=\'9\' && int(temp_expression[0])!=8
                         && int(temp_expression[0])!=27 )
              {
             infix_expression[25][6]=\'$\';
             break;
              }

           int x=45;
           int y=320;

           for(int count_4=0;count_4<=count_2;count_4++)
              {
             setcolor(14);
             settextstyle(1,0,4);

             moveto(x,y);
               outtext(infix_expression[count_4]);

             x=getx( );
              }

           input_characters_count++;
        }
         while(count_2<=22 && input_characters_count<=24);

         if(operator_count!=operand_count-1)
        expression_right_wrong=0;

         if(left_parenthesis_count!=right_parenthesis_count)
        expression_right_wrong=0;

         if(count_2<2)
        expression_right_wrong=0;

         if(infix_expression[25][6]==\'$\')
        expression_right_wrong=0;

         if(expression_right_wrong==0)
        {
           setfillstyle(1,0);
             bar(35,311,589,369);

           setcolor(10);
           settextstyle(1,0,5);
             outtextxy(60,310,\"Wrong Expression\");

           sound(2500);
           delay(500);
           nosound( );

           setfillstyle(1,0);
             bar(35,311,589,369);
        }
      }
       while(!expression_right_wrong);

       if(input_characters_count==25)
      while(int(getch( ))!=13);

       infix_rows=count_2+1;

       cleardevice( );
    }


 //---------------------------  int_push( )  -----------------------------//


 void Evaluator::int_push(long item)
    {
       int_top++;
       int_stack[int_top]=item;
    }


 //---------------------------  int_pop( )  ------------------------------//


 long Evaluator::int_pop( )
    {
       long item=0;

       item=int_stack[int_top];
       int_stack[int_top]=0;
       int_top--;

       return item;
    }


 //--------------------------  char_push( )  -----------------------------//


 void Evaluator::char_push(char item)
    {
       char_top++;
       char_stack[char_top]=item;
    }


 //--------------------------  char_pop( )  ------------------------------//


 char Evaluator::char_pop( )
    {
       char item=0;

       item=char_stack[char_top];
       char_stack[char_top]=\'\\0\';
       char_top--;

       return item;
    }


 //----------------------  show_infix_screen( )  -------------------------//


 void Evaluator::show_infix_screen( )
    {
       setfillstyle(1,1);
     bar(0,0,getmaxx( ),getmaxy( ));

       setfillstyle(1,3);
     bar(5,5,getmaxx( )-5,getmaxy( )-5);

       setfillstyle(1,6);
     bar(10,10,getmaxx( )-10,getmaxy( )-10);

       setcolor(15);
     line(75,45,530,45);

       setcolor(7);
     line(75,46,530,46);
     line(75,47,530,47);
     line(75,48,530,48);

       setcolor(8);
     line(75,49,530,49);

       setcolor(0);
     line(75,50,530,50);

       settextstyle(2,0,8);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(78,21,\"Convertion from Infix to Postfix\");
       outtextxy(79,21,\"Convertion from Infix to Postfix\");

     setcolor(3);
       outtextxy(80,20,\"Convertion from Infix to Postfix\");
       outtextxy(81,20,\"Convertion from Infix to Postfix\");
       outtextxy(82,20,\"Convertion from Infix to Postfix\");

       setcolor(10);
       settextstyle(2,0,7);
     outtextxy(20,65,\"Infix Expression :\");
     outtextxy(21,65,\"Infix Expression :\");

       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(18,88,287,127);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(20,90,285,125);
     rectangle(19,89,286,126);

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(21,91,284,124);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(21,91,284,124);

       setcolor(15);
     line(55,217,255,217);
     line(55,253,255,253);

     arc(55,235,90,270,18);
     arc(255,235,270,90,18);

     rectangle(52,255,258,443);

       setcolor(7);
     line(55,218,255,218);
     line(55,219,255,219);

     line(55,251,255,251);
     line(55,252,255,252);

     arc(55,235,90,270,17);
     arc(55,235,90,270,16);

     arc(255,235,270,90,17);
     arc(255,235,270,90,16);

     rectangle(53,256,257,442);
     rectangle(54,257,256,441);

       setcolor(8);
     line(55,220,255,220);
     line(55,250,255,250);

     arc(55,235,90,270,15);
     arc(255,235,270,90,15);

     rectangle(55,258,255,440);

     setcolor(9);
     setfillstyle(1,9);
       bar(55,221,255,249);

       pieslice(55,235,0,360,14);
       pieslice(255,235,0,360,14);

       settextstyle(2,0,8);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(77,221,\"Explanation\");
       outtextxy(78,221,\"Explanation\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(79,220,\"Explanation\");
       outtextxy(80,220,\"Explanation\");
       outtextxy(81,220,\"Explanation\");

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(56,259,254,439);

       setcolor(8);
     line(183,404,220,404);
     line(183,430,220,430);

     line(183,404,183,430);

     arc(220,417,270,90,13);

       setcolor(7);
     line(184,405,220,405);
     line(185,406,220,406);

     line(184,429,220,429);
     line(185,428,220,428);

     line(184,405,184,429);
     line(185,406,185,428);

     arc(220,417,270,90,12);
     arc(220,417,270,90,11);

       setcolor(8);
     line(186,407,220,407);
     line(186,427,220,427);
     line(186,407,186,427);

     arc(220,417,270,90,10);

       setcolor(9);
       setfillstyle(1,9);
     bar(187,408,220,426);

     pieslice(220,417,0,360,9);

       settextstyle(2,0,5);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(189,409,\"Next>\");
       outtextxy(190,409,\"Next>\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(191,408,\"Next>\");
       outtextxy(192,408,\"Next>\");

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(295,88,620,460);

       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(295,88,620,460);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(296,89,619,459);
     rectangle(297,90,618,458);
     rectangle(298,91,617,457);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(299,92,616,456);

       setfillstyle(1,9);
     bar(300,92,615,119);

       setcolor(15);
     line(300,120,615,120);

       setcolor(7);
     line(300,121,615,121);
     line(300,122,615,122);

       setcolor(8);
     line(300,123,615,123);

       setcolor(15);
     line(367,92,367,456);

       setcolor(7);
     line(368,92,368,456);
     line(369,92,369,456);

       setcolor(8);
     line(370,92,370,456);

       setcolor(15);
     line(442,92,442,456);

       setcolor(7);
     line(443,92,443,456);
     line(444,92,444,456);

       setcolor(8);
     line(445,92,445,456);

       settextstyle(2,0,5);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(305,92,\"Symbol\");
       outtextxy(305,105,\"Scanned\");

       outtextxy(306,92,\"Symbol\");
       outtextxy(306,105,\"Scanned\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(306,91,\"Symbol\");
       outtextxy(306,104,\"Scanned\");

       outtextxy(307,91,\"Symbol\");
       outtextxy(307,104,\"Scanned\");

       settextstyle(2,0,7);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(375,96,\"STACK\");
       outtextxy(376,96,\"STACK\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(377,95,\"STACK\");
       outtextxy(378,95,\"STACK\");

     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(459,96,\"Expression P\");
       outtextxy(459,96,\"Expression P\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(460,95,\"Expression P\");
       outtextxy(461,95,\"Expression P\");

       settextstyle(2,0,4);
     setcolor(15);
       outtextxy(20,447,\"Note : If you don\'t want to see explanation,\");
       outtextxy(60,459,\"Press <Esc> , else Press any Key.\");

     setcolor(10);
       outtextxy(20,447,\"Note :\");
       outtextxy(21,447,\"Note :\");
    }


 //-----------------  show_infix_to_postfix_convertion( )  ---------------//


 void Evaluator::show_infix_to_postfix_convertion( )
    {
       show_infix_screen( );

       int x_1=30;
       int y_1=97;
       int color_array[7]={3,6,5,10,11,14,12};

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<=infix_rows;count_1++)
     {
        settextstyle(2,0,6);
        setcolor(color_array[count_1%7]);

          moveto(x_1-1,y_1);
        outtext(infix_expression[count_1]);

          moveto(x_1,y_1);
        outtext(infix_expression[count_1]);

        x_1=getx( );
     }

       char_push(\'(\');
       strcpy(infix_expression[infix_rows],\")\");

       int count_2=0;
       int count_3=0;
       int explain_yes_not=0;

       do
      {
         char symbol_scanned[6]={\'\\0\'};
         char step_number[5]={\'\\0\'};

         strcpy(symbol_scanned,infix_expression[count_2]);

         itoa(count_2+1,step_number,10);
         strcat(step_number,\".\");

         if(symbol_scanned[0]==\'(\')
        {
           char_push(symbol_scanned[0]);

           if(explain_yes_not==0)
              show_explanation(2);
        }

         else if(symbol_scanned[0]==\')\')
        {
           char temp[2]={\'\\0\'};

           while(char_stack[char_top]!=\'(\')
              {
             temp[0]=\'\\0\';
             temp[0]=char_pop( );

             strcpy(postfix_expression[count_3],temp);

             count_3++;
              }

            temp[0]=char_pop( );

            if(explain_yes_not==0)
               show_explanation(3);
        }

         else if(symbol_scanned[0]==\'/\' || symbol_scanned[0]==\'*\' ||
               symbol_scanned[0]==\'-\' || symbol_scanned[0]==\'+\'
                           || symbol_scanned[0]==\'^\')
        {
           if(symbol_scanned[0]==\'^\')
              {
              }

           else if(symbol_scanned[0]==\'*\' || symbol_scanned[0]==\'/\')
              {
             while(char_stack[char_top]==\'^\' ||
                    char_stack[char_top]==\'*\' ||
                           char_stack[char_top]==\'/\')
                {
                char temp[2]={\'\\0\'};

                temp[0]=char_pop( );
                strcpy(postfix_expression[count_3],temp);

                count_3++;
                }
              }

           else if(symbol_scanned[0]==\'+\' || symbol_scanned[0]==\'-\')
              {
             while(char_stack[char_top]!=\'(\')
                {
                char temp[2]={\'\\0\'};

                temp[0]=char_pop( );
                strcpy(postfix_expression[count_3],temp);

                count_3++;
                 }
              }

           char_push(symbol_scanned[0]);

           if(explain_yes_not==0)
              show_explanation(4);
        }

         else if(symbol_scanned[0]!=\'/\' || symbol_scanned[0]!=\'*\' ||
             symbol_scanned[0]!=\'-\' || symbol_scanned[0]!=\'+\' ||
             symbol_scanned[0]!=\'(\' || symbol_scanned[0]!=\')\' ||
                              symbol_scanned[0]!=\'^\')
        {
           strcpy(postfix_expression[count_3],symbol_scanned);

           if(explain_yes_not==0)
              show_explanation(1);

           count_3++;
        }

         if(infix_rows>16 || input_characters_count>20)
        {
           settextstyle(2,0,4);
             setcolor(15);
               outtextxy(302,130+(12*count_2),step_number);

             setcolor(14);
               outtextxy(328,130+(12*count_2),symbol_scanned);
        }

         else
        {
           settextstyle(0,0,1);
             setcolor(15);
               outtextxy(302,130+(14*count_2),step_number);

             setcolor(14);
               outtextxy(328,130+(14*count_2),symbol_scanned);
        }

         int x_2=450;
         int y_2;

         if(infix_rows>16 || input_characters_count>20)
        {
           y_2=130+(count_2*12);

           settextstyle(2,0,4);
        }

         else
        {
           y_2=130+(count_2*14);

           settextstyle(0,0,1);
        }

         for(int count_4=0;count_4<count_3;count_4++)
        {
           setcolor(color_array[count_4%7]);

           moveto(x_2,y_2);
             outtext(postfix_expression[count_4]);

           x_2=getx( );
        }

         show_char_stack(count_2);

         count_2++;

         char key=\'\\0\';

         int key_code=0;

         if(explain_yes_not==0)
        {
           key=getch( );
           key_code=int(key);

           if(key_code==27)
              explain_yes_not=1;
        }

         else
        delay(200);

      }
       while(char_stack[char_top]!=\'\\0\');

       show_explanation(8);

       while(int(getch( ))!=13);

       postfix_rows=count_3;

    }


 //--------------------------  show_explanation(int)  --------------------//


 void Evaluator::show_explanation(int flag)
    {
       setcolor(12);
       setfillstyle(1,12);
     bar(187,408,220,426);

     pieslice(220,417,0,360,9);

       settextstyle(2,0,5);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(189,409,\"Next>\");
       outtextxy(190,409,\"Next>\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(191,408,\"Next>\");
       outtextxy(192,408,\"Next>\");

       delay(500);

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(56,259,254,395);

       setcolor(15);
       settextstyle(2,0,4);

       if(flag==0)
      {
         outtextxy(60,263,\"  The scanned symnol\");
         outtextxy(60,278,\"is an operand, so it\");
         outtextxy(60,293,\"will be pushed onto \");
         outtextxy(60,308,\"the stack.\");
      }

       else if(flag==1)
      {
         outtextxy(60,263,\"    The scanned symnol is an\");
         outtextxy(60,278,\"operand, so it is added to the\");
         outtextxy(60,293,\"Postfix Expression \'P\'. \");
      }

       else if(flag==2)
      {
         outtextxy(60,263,\"    The scanned symbol is the\");
         outtextxy(60,278,\"left parenthesis \'(\', so it is\");
         outtextxy(60,293,\"pushed onto the Stack straight\");
         outtextxy(60,308,\"away.\");
      }

       else if(flag==3)
      {
         outtextxy(60,262,\"    The scanned symbol is an\");
         outtextxy(60,277,\"right parenthesis \')\', so the\");
         outtextxy(60,292,\"operators from the top of the\");
         outtextxy(60,307,\"Stack are Poped & added to the\");
         outtextxy(60,322,\"Postfix Expression \'P\' until the\");
         outtextxy(60,337,\"left parenthesis \'(\' occured.\");
         outtextxy(60,352,\"   The left parenthesis \'(\' is\");
         outtextxy(60,367,\"also Poped from the Stack.\");
      }

       else if(flag==4)
      {
         outtextxy(60,262,\"      The scanned symbol is an\");
         outtextxy(60,275,\"operator, so the operator on the\");
         outtextxy(60,288,\"top of the Stack are Poped and\");
         outtextxy(60,301,\"added to the Postfix Expression\");
         outtextxy(60,314,\"\'P\' until the operator on the top\");
         outtextxy(60,327,\"of the Stack has more or equal\");
         outtextxy(60,340,\"precedence then the scanned\");
         outtextxy(60,353,\"operator (if any).\");
         outtextxy(60,366,\"    Finally, the scanned operator\");
         outtextxy(60,379,\"is Pushed onto the Stack.\");
      }

       else if(flag==5)
      {
         outtextxy(60,262,\"    The scanned symnol is an\");
         outtextxy(60,277,\"operand, so it is Pushed onto\");
         outtextxy(60,292,\"the Stack. \");
      }

       else if(flag==6)
      {
         outtextxy(60,262,\"    The scanned symbol is an\");
         outtextxy(60,277,\"operator, so two values from the\");
         outtextxy(60,292,\"top of the Stack are Poped and\");
         outtextxy(60,307,\"their result, attained by mani-\");
         outtextxy(60,322,\"pluating the Poped values & the\");
         outtextxy(60,337,\"scanned operator, is Pushed onto\");
         outtextxy(60,352,\"the Stack.\");
      }

       else if(flag==7)
      {
         outtextxy(60,262,\"    The scanned symnol is the\");
         outtextxy(60,277,\"equal sign, so that is end of\");
         outtextxy(60,292,\"the evaluation of the Expression\");
         outtextxy(60,307,\"\'P\' and the value on the top of \");
         outtextxy(60,322,\"Stack is our Result.\");
      }
       else if(flag==8)
      {
         outtextxy(60,262,\"     This is the end of the\");
         outtextxy(60,277,\"convertion of Infix Expression\");
         outtextxy(60,292,\"into the Postfix Expression.\");
      }


       setcolor(9);
       setfillstyle(1,9);
     bar(187,408,220,426);

     pieslice(220,417,0,360,9);

       settextstyle(2,0,5);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(189,409,\"Next>\");
       outtextxy(190,409,\"Next>\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(191,408,\"Next>\");
       outtextxy(192,408,\"Next>\");
    }


 //------------------------  show_postfix_screen( )  ---------------------//


 void Evaluator::show_postfix_screen( )
    {
       setfillstyle(1,6);
     bar(75,25,530,45);

       settextstyle(2,0,8);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(76,21,\"Evaluation of Postfix Expression\");
       outtextxy(77,21,\"Evaluation of Postfix Expression\");

     setcolor(3);
       outtextxy(78,20,\"Evaluation of Postfix Expression\");
       outtextxy(79,20,\"Evaluation of Postfix Expression\");
       outtextxy(80,20,\"Evaluation of Postfix Expression\");

       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(18,158,287,197);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(20,160,285,195);
     rectangle(19,159,286,196);

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(21,161,284,194);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(21,161,284,194);

       setcolor(10);
       settextstyle(2,0,7);
     outtextxy(20,135,\"Postfix Expression :\");
     outtextxy(21,135,\"Postfix Expression :\");

       int color_array[7]={3,6,5,10,11,14,12};
       int x=30;

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<=postfix_rows;count_1++)
      {
         settextstyle(2,0,6);
         setcolor(color_array[count_1%7]);

           moveto(x-1,167);
         outtext(postfix_expression[count_1]);

           moveto(x,167);
         outtext(postfix_expression[count_1]);

         x=getx( );
     }

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(295,88,620,460);

       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(295,88,620,460);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(296,89,619,459);
     rectangle(297,90,618,458);
     rectangle(298,91,617,457);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(299,92,616,456);

       setfillstyle(1,9);
     bar(300,92,615,119);

       setcolor(15);
     line(300,120,615,120);

       setcolor(7);
     line(300,121,615,121);
     line(300,122,615,122);

       setcolor(8);
     line(300,123,615,123);

       setcolor(15);
     line(387,92,387,456);

       setcolor(7);
     line(388,92,388,456);
     line(389,92,389,456);

       setcolor(8);
     line(390,92,390,456);

       settextstyle(2,0,5);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(303,92,\"Symbol\");
       outtextxy(318,105,\"Scanned\");

       outtextxy(304,92,\"Symbol\");
       outtextxy(319,105,\"Scanned\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(305,91,\"Symbol\");
       outtextxy(320,104,\"Scanned\");

       outtextxy(306,91,\"Symbol\");
       outtextxy(321,104,\"Scanned\");

       settextstyle(2,0,7);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(473,96,\"STACK\");
       outtextxy(474,96,\"STACK\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(475,95,\"STACK\");
       outtextxy(476,95,\"STACK\");
       outtextxy(477,95,\"STACK\");
    }


 //------------  show_evaluation_of_postfix_expression( )  ---------------//


 void Evaluator::show_evaluation_of_postfix_expression( )
    {
       show_postfix_screen( );

       int count_1=0;
       int explain_yes_not=0;

       char symbol_scanned[6]={\'\\0\'};

       strcat(postfix_expression[postfix_rows],\"=\");

       do
      {
         for(int count_2=0;count_2<6;count_2++)
        symbol_scanned[count_2]=\'\\0\';

         strcpy(symbol_scanned,postfix_expression[count_1]);

         count_1++;

         char step_number[5]={\'\\0\'};

         itoa(count_1,step_number,10);
         strcat(step_number,\".\");

         setcolor(15);
         settextstyle(0,0,1);
        outtextxy(305,120+(15*count_1),step_number);

         setcolor(14);
        outtextxy(335,120+(15*count_1),symbol_scanned);

         if(symbol_scanned[0]==\'/\' || symbol_scanned[0]==\'*\' ||
        symbol_scanned[0]==\'-\' || symbol_scanned[0]==\'+\' ||
                             symbol_scanned[0]==\'^\')
        {
           long value_1=0;
           long value_2=0;
           long result=0;

           value_1=int_pop( );
           value_2=int_pop( );

           switch(symbol_scanned[0])
              {
             case \'+\': result=value_2+value_1;
                   break;

             case \'/\': result=value_2/value_1;
                   break;

             case \'*\': result=value_2*value_1;
                   break;

             case \'-\': result=value_2-value_1;
                   break;

             case \'^\': result=powl(value_2,value_1);
                   break;
              }

           int_push(result);

           if(explain_yes_not==0)
              show_explanation(6);
        }

         else if((symbol_scanned[0]!=\'/\' || symbol_scanned[0]!=\'*\' ||
              symbol_scanned[0]!=\'-\' || symbol_scanned[0]!=\'+\' ||
               symbol_scanned[0]!=\'^\' )&& symbol_scanned[0]!=\'=\')

        {
           long number=atol(symbol_scanned);

           int_push(number);

           if(explain_yes_not==0)
              show_explanation(5);
        }

         show_int_stack(count_1);

         char key=\'\\0\';

         int key_code=0;

         if(explain_yes_not==0)
        {
           key=getch( );
           key_code=int(key);

           if(key_code==27)
              explain_yes_not=1;
        }

         else
        delay(200);

      }
       while(symbol_scanned[0]!=\'=\');

       show_explanation(7);

       while(int(getch( ))!=13);
     }


 //-------------------------  show_char_stack(int)  ----------------------//


 void Evaluator::show_char_stack(int element_number)
    {
       char stack[25]={\'\\0\'};

       for(int count=0;count<=char_top;count++)
      {
         char temp_stack[2]={\'\\0\'};

         temp_stack[0]=char_stack[count];

         strcat(stack,temp_stack);
      }

       setcolor(11);

       if(infix_rows>16 || input_characters_count>20)
      {
         settextstyle(2,0,4);
           outtextxy(375,130+(12*element_number),stack);
      }

       else
      {
         settextstyle(0,0,1);
           outtextxy(375,130+(14*element_number),stack);
      }
    }


 //--------------------------  show_int_stack(int)  ----------------------//


 void Evaluator::show_int_stack(int element_number)
    {
       char stack[10][10]={\'\\0\'};

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<10;count_1++)
      ltoa(int_stack[count_1],stack[count_1],10);

       int color_array[7]={3,6,5,10,11,14,12};
       int x_2=400;
       int y_2=120+(element_number*15);

       for(int count_2=0;count_2<=int_top;count_2++)
      {
         settextstyle(0,0,1);
         setcolor(color_array[count_2%7]);

           moveto(x_2,y_2);
         outtext(stack[count_2]);

         x_2=getx( );
      }
    }


 //--------------------------  show_summary( )  --------------------------//


 void Evaluator::show_summary( )
    {
       cleardevice( );

       setfillstyle(6,1);
       bar(5,5,getmaxx( )-5,getmaxy( )-5);

    for(int count_1=0;count_1<15;count_1++)
       {
          setcolor(count_1);
          rectangle(5+count_1,5+count_1,getmaxx( )-5-count_1,
                               getmaxy( )-5-count_1);
       }

       setfillstyle(1,14);
     bar(180,75,450,78);

       settextstyle(1,0,6);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(138,20,\"* Summary *\");
       outtextxy(139,20,\"* Summary *\");

     setcolor(12);
       outtextxy(140,20,\"* Summary *\");
       outtextxy(141,20,\"* Summary *\");
       outtextxy(142,20,\"* Summary *\");

       settextstyle(1,0,4);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(98,106,\"Infix Expression :\");
       outtextxy(99,106,\"Infix Expression :\");

     setcolor(10);
       outtextxy(100,105,\"Infix Expression :\");
       outtextxy(101,105,\"Infix Expression :\");

       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(99,145,501,200);
     rectangle(100,146,500,199);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(101,147,499,198);
     rectangle(102,148,498,197);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(103,149,497,196);
     rectangle(104,150,496,195);

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(105,151,495,194);

       settextstyle(1,0,4);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(98,220,\"Postfix Expression :\");
       outtextxy(99,220,\"Postfix Expression :\");

     setcolor(10);
       outtextxy(100,219,\"Postfix Expression :\");
       outtextxy(101,219,\"Postfix Expression :\");

       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(99,259,501,316);
     rectangle(100,260,500,315);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(101,261,499,314);
     rectangle(102,262,498,313);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(103,263,497,312);
     rectangle(104,264,496,311);

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(105,265,495,310);

       settextstyle(1,0,5);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(98,323,\"Result :\");
       outtextxy(99,323,\"Result :\");

     setcolor(10);
       outtextxy(100,322,\"Result :\");
       outtextxy(101,322,\"Result :\");

       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(99,369,501,431);
     rectangle(100,370,500,430);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(101,371,499,429);
     rectangle(102,372,498,428);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(103,373,497,427);
     rectangle(104,374,496,426);

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(105,375,495,425);

       setcolor(11);
       settextstyle(2,0,8);

       int x_1=120;
       int y_1=157;

       for(int count_2=0;count_2<infix_rows;count_2++)
     {
        moveto(x_1-1,y_1);
          outtext(infix_expression[count_2]);

        moveto(x_1,y_1);
          outtext(infix_expression[count_2]);

        x_1=getx( );
     }

       int color_array[7]={3,6,5,10,11,14,12};
       int x_2=120;
       int y_2=270;

       for(int count_3=0;count_3<postfix_rows;count_3++)
     {
         settextstyle(2,0,8);
         setcolor(color_array[count_3%7]);

           moveto(x_2-1,y_2);
         outtext(postfix_expression[count_3]);

           moveto(x_2,y_2);
         outtext(postfix_expression[count_3]);

         x_2=getx( );
     }

       char result[10]={\'\\0\'};

       ltoa(int_stack[0],result,10);

       setcolor(11);
       settextstyle(1,0,5);
     outtextxy(120,373,result);
     outtextxy(121,373,result);

       while(!getch( ));

       for(int count_4=0;count_4<320;count_4++)
      {
         setcolor(0);
           rectangle(getmaxx( )/2-count_4,getmaxy( )/2-count_4,
                  getmaxx( )/2+count_4,getmaxy( )/2+count_4);

         delay(1);
      }
    }

 int main( )
    {
       int driver=VGA;
       int mode=VGAHI;

       initgraph(&driver,&mode,\"..\\\\Bgi\");

       Evaluator obj;

       obj.show_main_screen( );
       obj.get_infix_expression( );
       obj.show_infix_to_postfix_convertion( );
       obj.show_evaluation_of_postfix_expression( );
       obj.show_summary( );

       closegraph( );

       return 0;
    }

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