C++ Programming Tutorial

 
 
 

Data File Structure Programs

Array

Insert, edit, delete, append, display, Srch. Insert, delete, merge, delete multiple occurrences Arrays as a Stack in graphics

Stack

Stack operations using array Stack using static memory allocation Stack using dynamic memory allocation Double ended link list as a stack Lnked list as a Stack Infix expr. to Postfix expr. Postfix expr. into an Infix expr. Arrays as a Stack in graphics Stack as an Arithmetic expr. Evaluater Graphical Rep. of Stack Stack to traverse - inodr, postodr, preodr

Queue

Queue using static memory allocation Queue using dynamic memory allocation Circular queue Linked list as a Queue Double Ended linked list as a Queue Graphical Rep. of Queue Arrays as a Linear Queue Array as a Circular Queue Arrays as a Linear Queue ( in graphics ) Arrays as a Circular Queue ( in graphics )

Linked List

Singly link list Circular linked list Doubly link list Linked list as a Queue Linked list as a Stack Double Ended linked list as a Queue Double Ended linked list as a Stack Infix to Postfix - Linked List as Stack Circular doubly link list Single Ended Linked List - Sorting in both odr Hashing - double ended Linked List Sort of link list

Tree

Linked List as a Binary Srch. Tree Set Class using Binary Srch. Tree Maximum depth of Binary Srch. Tree Minimum Spaning Tree Prims algo - minimum spanning tree Traverse binary tree - inodr, preodr, post Find number in binary Srch. tree display levell

Sorting

Bubble Sort Selection Sort Insertion Sort Radix Sort Merge Sort Quick Sort Heap Sort Linear Sort Shell Sort Topological Sort

Searching

Linear Srch. or Sequential Srch. Binary Search Breadth First Search Traversal Depth First Search Traversal Shortest Path-Given Source-Destination-Dijkstras

Hashing

Simple implementation of Hashing Hashing using double-ended Linked List Hashing using Mid-Square Method Example of Hashing n term of the fibonacci series using recursion

Recursion

Factorial of the given number using recursion Mystery of Towers of Hanoi using recursion
 
 
 # include <iostream.h>
 # include <graphics.h>
 # include <stdlib.h>
 # include <conio.h>
 # include <dos.h>

 # define PUSH 0
 # define POP 1

 # define NORMAL 0
 # define WARNING 1


 /**************************************************************************/
 //------------------  Double_Ended_Linked_list_as_Stack ------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 class Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack
    {
       private:
        char fill_pattern[8];

        int pushed_element_count;

        struct node
            {
               long data;
               node *next;
               node *previous;
            };

        node *top;
        node *entry;
        node *print;
        node *bottom;

       public:
        Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack( );

        long get_element( );

        void pop( );
        void push( );
        void print_linked_list( );
        void show_working( );
        void show_main_screen( );
        void waiting_for_input( );
        void show_element_screen(int);
        void clear_element_screen(int);
        void show_push_pop_screen(int);
        void show_output_screen( );
        void show_window(int,int,int,int);
    };

 /**************************************************************************/
 /**************************************************************************/
 //---------------------  FUNCTION DEFINITIONS  ---------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/
 /**************************************************************************/

 /**************************************************************************/
 //------------------  Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack( )  --------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack ( )
    {
       top=NULL;
       bottom=NULL;
       pushed_element_count=0;

       fill_pattern[0]=0xAA;
       fill_pattern[1]=0x55;
       fill_pattern[2]=0xAA;
       fill_pattern[3]=0x55;
       fill_pattern[4]=0xAA;
       fill_pattern[5]=0x55;
       fill_pattern[6]=0xAA;
       fill_pattern[7]=0x55;
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //--------------------  show_window(int,int,int,int)  --------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::
                show_window(int x_1,int y_1,int x_2,int y_2)
    {
       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(x_1,y_1,x_2,y_2);
     rectangle(x_1+1,y_1+1,x_2-1,y_2-1);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(x_1+2,y_1+2,x_2-2,y_2-2);
     rectangle(x_1+3,y_1+3,x_2-3,y_2-3);
     rectangle(x_1+4,y_1+4,x_2-4,y_2-4);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(x_1+5,y_1+5,x_2-5,y_2-5);
     rectangle(x_1+6,y_1+6,x_2-6,y_2-6);
     rectangle(x_1+7,y_1+7,x_2-7,y_2-7);
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //----------------------  show_main_screen( )  ---------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack ::show_main_screen( )
    {
       cleardevice( );

       setcolor(15);
       setlinestyle(1,0,3);
     rectangle(5,5,getmaxx( )-5,getmaxy( )-5);

       setlinestyle(0,0,0);

       show_window(5,5,getmaxx( )-5,80);

       setfillpattern(fill_pattern,4);
     bar(13,13,getmaxx( )-13,72);

       settextstyle(2,0,7);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(18,17,\"Implementation of\");
       outtextxy(18,16,\"Implementation of\");

     setcolor(12);
       outtextxy(19,15,\"Implementation of\");
       outtextxy(20,15,\"Implementation of\");

       settextstyle(2,0,9);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(37,37,\"Double Ended Linked List as Stack\");
       outtextxy(38,37,\"Double Ended Linked List as Stack\");
       outtextxy(38,36,\"Double Ended Linked List as Stack\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(39,35,\"Double Ended Linked List as Stack\");
       outtextxy(40,35,\"Double Ended Linked List as Stack\");
       outtextxy(41,35,\"Double Ended Linked List as Stack\");

       show_window(5,82,305,getmaxy( )-5);

       setfillpattern(fill_pattern,9);
     bar(14,91,296,getmaxy( )-14);

       setcolor(6);
       setfillstyle(1,6);
     pieslice(215,105,0,360,10);

       setcolor(2);
       setfillstyle(1,2);
     pieslice(245,105,0,360,10);

       setcolor(4);
       setfillstyle(1,4);
     pieslice(275,105,0,360,10);

       setcolor(7);
     circle(215,105,11);
     circle(245,105,11);
     circle(275,105,11);

       show_window(307,82,getmaxx( )-5,getmaxy( )-5);

       settextstyle(7,0,4);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(16,111,\"Press:\");

     setcolor(10);
       outtextxy(17,110,\"Press:\");
       outtextxy(18,110,\"Press:\");

       settextstyle(2,0,6);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(59,151,\"<P> to Push an Element\");
       outtextxy(59,171,\"<O> to Pop an Element\");
       outtextxy(59,191,\"<E> to Exit\");

     setcolor(14);
       outtextxy(60,150,\"<P> to Push an Element\");
       outtextxy(61,150,\"<P> to Push an Element\");

       outtextxy(60,170,\"<O> to Pop an Element\");
       outtextxy(61,170,\"<O> to Pop an Element\");

       outtextxy(60,190,\"<E> to Exit\");
       outtextxy(61,190,\"<E> to Exit\");

       setfillstyle(2,1);
     bar(317,92,getmaxx( )-15,getmaxy( )-15);
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //-------------------------  show_output_screen( )  ----------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::show_output_screen( )
    {
       for(int count=0;count<=187;count++)
      {
         setfillstyle(1,0);
           bar(317,280,getmaxx( )-15,278-count);
           bar(317,280,getmaxx( )-15,278+count);

         delay(5);
      }

       setcolor(12);
       settextstyle(2,0,5);
     outtextxy(415,405,\"Double Ended Linked List\");
     outtextxy(416,405,\"Double Ended Linked List\");

     outtextxy(560,425,\"as Stack\");
     outtextxy(561,425,\"as Stack\");

       setfillstyle(1,6);
     bar(414,420,600,422);
     bar(560,440,622,442);

       setcolor(15);
       setlinestyle(0,0,3);
     rectangle(330,405,400,435);

       setfillstyle(1,9);
     bar(346,406,384,434);

       setfillstyle(1,1);
     bar(331,406,344,434);
     bar(386,406,399,434);

       setcolor(15);
       setlinestyle(0,0,3);
     rectangle(345,405,385,435);

       setcolor(7);
       setlinestyle(0,0,0);
     line(337,420,337,460);  /* Entry->Previous pointing arrow */
     line(337,460,415,460);

     line(412,457,415,460);
     line(412,463,415,460);

     line(360,428,360,450);  /* Entry->Data pointing arrow */
     line(360,450,415,450);

     line(412,447,415,450);
     line(412,453,415,450);

     line(393,420,393,440);   /* Entry->Next pointing arrow */
     line(393,440,415,440);

     line(412,437,415,440);
     line(412,443,415,440);

       setcolor(15);
       setfillstyle(1,15);
     pieslice(337,420,0,360,2);
     pieslice(393,420,0,360,2);

       settextstyle(0,0,1);
     setcolor(15);
       outtextxy(320,402,\"*\");

     setcolor(9);
     settextstyle(2,0,4);
       outtextxy(420,454,\"Entry->Previous (x=NULL)\");
       outtextxy(420,442,\"Entry->Data\");
       outtextxy(420,430,\"Entry->Next (x=NULL)\");

       setcolor(11);
       settextstyle(0,0,1);
     outtextxy(350,417,\"0000\");
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //---------------------  show_push_pop_screen(int)  ----------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::
                     show_push_pop_screen(int NORMAL_WARNING)
    {
       int x_1;
       int x_2;
       int y_1;
       int y_2;

       if(NORMAL_WARNING==NORMAL)
      {
         x_1=20;
         x_2=280;
         y_1=277;
         y_2=350;
      }

       if(NORMAL_WARNING==WARNING)
      {
         x_1=20;
         x_2=280;
         y_1=277;
         y_2=367;
      }

       setcolor(15);
       setlinestyle(1,0,3);
     rectangle(x_1,y_1,x_2,y_2);

       setlinestyle(0,0,0);

       setcolor(15);
     rectangle(x_1,y_1,x_2,y_2);

       setcolor(7);
     rectangle(x_1+1,y_1+1,x_2-1,y_2-1);

       setcolor(8);
     rectangle(x_1+2,y_1+2,x_2-2,y_2-2);

       setfillstyle(1,9);
     bar(x_1+3,y_1+3,x_2-3,y_2-3);
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //----------------------  show_element_screen(int)  ----------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::show_element_screen(int PUSH_POP)
    {
       show_push_pop_screen(NORMAL);

       if(PUSH_POP==PUSH)
      {
         settextstyle(2,0,6);
           setcolor(0);
         outtextxy(28,281,\"Enter the Element :\");

           setcolor(11);
         outtextxy(29,280,\"Enter the Element :\");
         outtextxy(30,280,\"Enter the Element :\");
      }

       else if(PUSH_POP==POP)
      {
         settextstyle(2,0,6);
           setcolor(0);
         outtextxy(28,281,\"Poped Element is :\");

           setcolor(11);
         outtextxy(29,280,\"Poped Element is :\");
         outtextxy(30,280,\"Poped Element is :\");
      }

       delay(300);

       for(int count=1;count<=65;count++)
      {
         setcolor(0);
         setfillstyle(1,0);
           bar(180-count,306,180+count,330);

           pieslice(180-count,318,0,360,12);
           pieslice(180+count,318,0,360,12);

         setcolor(15);
           line(180-count,302,180+count,302);
           line(180-count,334,180+count,334);

           arc(180-count,318,90,270,16);
           arc(180+count,318,270,90,16);

         setcolor(7);
           arc(180-count,318,90,270,15);
           arc(180-count,318,90,270,14);

           line(180-count,303,180+count,303);
           line(180-count,304,180+count,304);

           line(180-count,333,180+count,333);
           line(180-count,332,180+count,332);

           arc(180+count,318,270,90,15);
           arc(180+count,318,270,90,14);

         setcolor(8);
           line(180-count,305,180+count,305);
           line(180-count,331,180+count,331);

           arc(180-count,318,90,270,13);
           arc(180+count,318,270,90,13);

         delay(4);
      }
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //-------------------  clear_element_screen(int)  ------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::
                     clear_element_screen(int NORMAL_WARNING)
    {
       if(NORMAL_WARNING==WARNING)
     {
         for(int count=1;count<=50;count++)
        {
           setfillpattern(fill_pattern,9);
             bar(18,275,290,275+count);
             bar(18,375,290,375-count);

           delay(20);
        }
      }

       else if(NORMAL_WARNING==NORMAL)
      {
         for(int count=1;count<=40;count++)
        {
           setfillpattern(fill_pattern,9);
             bar(18,275,290,275+count);
             bar(18,355,290,355-count);

           delay(20);
        }
      }
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //----------------------------  get_element( )  --------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 long Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::get_element( )
    {
       show_element_screen(PUSH);

       int count=0;
       char string[6]={\'\\0\'};

       do
      {
         int key_code=0;

         char key=NULL;

         if(kbhit( ))
        key=getch( );

         key_code=int(key);

         if(key_code>=48 && key_code<=57)
        {
           string[count]=key;
           count++;
        }

         else if(key_code==8 && count>0)
        {
           setfillstyle(1,0);
             bar(130,306,230,330);

           count--;
           string[count]=\'\\0\';
        }

         else if(key_code==13 && count>0)
        break;

         setcolor(12);
         settextstyle(2,0,7);

           moveto(140,305);
         outtext(string);

           moveto(141,305);
         outtext(string);

         int x=getx( );
         int y=305;

         while(!kbhit( ))
        {
           settextstyle(2,0,7);
             setcolor(12);
               moveto(x+2,y);
             outtext(\"_\");

           delay(250);

             setcolor(0);
               moveto(x+2,y);
             outtext(\"_\");

           delay(200);
           }
      }
       while(count<4);

       if(count==4)
      while(int(getch( ))!=13);

       long element=atol(string);

       clear_element_screen(NORMAL);

       return element;
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //-------------------------------  push( )  ------------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::push( )
    {
       long num=get_element( );

       for(int count=1;count<5;count++)
      {
         setcolor(0);
         setfillstyle(1,0);
           pieslice(215,105,0,360,10);

         delay(250);

         setcolor(6);
         setfillstyle(1,6);
           pieslice(215,105,0,360,10);

         delay(300);
      }

       if(pushed_element_count<15)
      {
         setcolor(10);
         setfillstyle(1,10);
           pieslice(245,105,0,360,10);

         sound(1500);
         delay(800);
         nosound( );

         setcolor(2);
         setfillstyle(1,2);
           pieslice(245,105,0,360,10);
      }

       if(pushed_element_count==15)
      {
         setcolor(12);
         setfillstyle(1,12);
           pieslice(275,105,0,360,10);

         sound(2500);
         delay(1000);
         nosound( );

         setcolor(4);
         setfillstyle(1,4);
           pieslice(275,105,0,360,10);

         delay(200);
      }

       entry=new(node);
       entry->next=NULL;
       entry->previous=NULL;

       if(pushed_element_count==15)
      {
         show_push_pop_screen(WARNING);

         settextstyle(7,0,4);
           setcolor(0);
         outtextxy(25,277,\"Error:\");
         outtextxy(26,277,\"Error:\");

           setcolor(14);
         outtextxy(27,275,\"Error:\");
         outtextxy(28,275,\"Error:\");

         while(!kbhit( ))
        {
           settextstyle(2,0,8);
             setcolor(0);
               outtextxy(46,309,\"Not enough heap\");
               outtextxy(47,309,\"Not enough heap\");

               outtextxy(28,335,\"space on Screen.\");
               outtextxy(29,335,\"space on Screen.\");

             setcolor(12);
               outtextxy(48,308,\"Not enough heap\");
               outtextxy(49,308,\"Not enough heap\");
               outtextxy(50,308,\"Not enough heap\");

               outtextxy(30,334,\"space on Screen.\");
               outtextxy(31,334,\"space on Screen.\");
               outtextxy(32,334,\"space on Screen.\");

           delay(500);

           setfillstyle(1,9);
             bar(23,315,277,362);

           delay(400);
        }

         getch( );
         clear_element_screen(1);
      }

       else if(top==NULL)
      {
         entry->data=num;
         top=entry;
         bottom=top;
         top->next=NULL;

         pushed_element_count++;
      }

       else
      {
         entry->data=num;
         top->next=entry;
         entry->previous=top;
         top=entry;
         top->next=NULL;

         pushed_element_count++;
      }

       print_linked_list( );
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //----------------------------  pop( )  ----------------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::pop( )
    {
       for(int count=1;count<5;count++)
      {
         setcolor(0);
         setfillstyle(1,0);
           pieslice(215,105,0,360,10);

         delay(250);

         setcolor(6);
         setfillstyle(1,6);
           pieslice(215,105,0,360,10);

         delay(300);
      }

       if(pushed_element_count==0)
      {
         setcolor(12);
         setfillstyle(1,12);
           pieslice(275,105,0,360,10);

         sound(2500);
         delay(1000);
         nosound( );

         setcolor(4);
         setfillstyle(1,4);
           pieslice(275,105,0,360,10);

         delay(200);
      }

       else if(pushed_element_count>0)
      {
         setcolor(10);
         setfillstyle(1,10);
           pieslice(245,105,0,360,10);

         sound(3000);
         delay(800);
         nosound( );

         setcolor(2);
         setfillstyle(1,2);
           pieslice(245,105,0,360,10);
      }

       if(bottom==NULL)
      {
         show_push_pop_screen(WARNING);

         settextstyle(7,0,4);
           setcolor(0);
         outtextxy(25,277,\"Error:\");
         outtextxy(26,277,\"Error:\");

           setcolor(14);
         outtextxy(27,275,\"Error:\");
         outtextxy(28,275,\"Error:\");

         while(!kbhit( ))
        {
           settextstyle(6,0,4);
             setcolor(0);
               outtextxy(48,306,\"Nothing to Pop\");
               outtextxy(49,306,\"Nothing to Pop\");

             setcolor(12);
               outtextxy(50,305,\"Nothing to Pop\");
               outtextxy(51,305,\"Nothing to Pop\");
               outtextxy(52,305,\"Nothing to Pop\");

           delay(500);

           setfillstyle(1,9);
             bar(23,315,277,350);

           delay(400);
        }
         getch( );
      }

       else
      {
         if(top==bottom)
        bottom=NULL;

         node *poped_element;

         long poped_data=top->data;

         poped_element=top;
         top=top->previous;
         top->next=NULL;

         delete(poped_element);

         pushed_element_count--;

         char element[6]={\'\\0\'};

         ltoa(poped_data,element,10);

         show_element_screen(POP);

         setcolor(12);
         settextstyle(2,0,7);
           outtextxy(140,305,element);
           outtextxy(141,305,element);

         delay(2500);
      }

       clear_element_screen(POP);
       print_linked_list( );
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //-----------------------  print_linked_list( )  -------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack::print_linked_list( )
    {
       int count=0;
       int x=335;
       int y=100;

       print=bottom;

       setfillstyle(1,0);
     bar(317,92,getmaxx( )-15,getmaxy( )-80);

       while(print!=NULL)
      {
         setcolor(15);
         setlinestyle(0,0,3);
           rectangle(x,y,x+70,y+30);


         setfillstyle(1,1);
           bar(x+1,y+1,x+14,y+29);

         setfillstyle(1,9);
           bar(x+16,y+1,x+54,y+29);

         setfillstyle(1,1);
           bar(x+56,y+1,x+69,y+29);

           rectangle(x+15,y,x+55,y+30);

         char element[6]={\'\\0\'};

         ltoa(print->data,element,10);

         settextstyle(0,0,1);
           setcolor(11);
         outtextxy(x+20,y+10,element);


         if(count==0 || count==1 || count==2 || count==6 || count==7 ||
                 count==8 || count==12 || count==13 || count==14)
        {
           if(count==0)
              {
             setcolor(15);
               outtextxy(x+4,y+11,\"x\");
              }

           if(count==pushed_element_count-1)
              {
             setcolor(15);
               rectangle(x+15,y,x+55,y+30);
               outtextxy(x+60,y+11,\"x\");
              }
        }

         else
        {
           if(count==pushed_element_count-1)
              {
             setcolor(15);
             rectangle(x+15,y,x+55,y+30);
             outtextxy(x+4,y+11,\"x\");
              }
        }


         if(count==1 || count==2 || count==7 || count==8 || count==13
                                || count==14)
        {
           setcolor(7);
           setlinestyle(0,0,3);
             line(x-40,y+10,x-2,y+10);

             line(x-6,y+6,x-2,y+10);
             line(x-6,y+14,x-2,y+10);

             line(x-28,y+20,x+7,y+20);

             line(x-28,y+20,x-24,y+16);
             line(x-28,y+20,x-24,y+24);

           setcolor(15);
           setfillstyle(1,15);
             pieslice(x-37,y+10,0,360,2);
             pieslice(x+7,y+20,0,360,2);
        }

         else if(count==4 || count==5 || count==10 || count==11)
        {
           setcolor(7);
           setlinestyle(0,0,3);
             line(x+64,y+10,x+98,y+10);

             line(x+94,y+6,x+98,y+10);
             line(x+94,y+14,x+98,y+10);

             line(x+72,y+20,x+107,y+20);

             line(x+72,y+20,x+76,y+16);
             line(x+72,y+20,x+76,y+24);

           setcolor(15);
           setfillstyle(1,15);
             pieslice(x+63,y+10,0,360,2);
             pieslice(x+107,y+20,0,360,2);
        }

         else if(count==3 || count==9)
        {
           setcolor(7);
           setlinestyle(0,0,3);
             line(x+60,y-50,x+80,y-50);
             line(x+80,y-50,x+80,y+20);
             line(x+72,y+20,x+80,y+20);

             line(x+72,y+20,x+76,y+16);
             line(x+72,y+20,x+76,y+24);

             line(x+63,y-30,x+63,y+10);

             line(x+63,y-28,x+59,y-24);
             line(x+63,y-28,x+67,y-24);

           setcolor(15);
           setfillstyle(1,15);
             pieslice(x+63,y+10,0,360,2);
             pieslice(x+63,y-50,0,360,2);
        }

         else if(count==6 || count==12)
        {
           setcolor(7);
           setlinestyle(0,0,3);
             line(x-15,y-50,x+10,y-50);
             line(x-15,y-50,x-15,y+20);
             line(x-15,y+20,x,y+20);

             line(x-2,y+20,x-6,y+16);
             line(x-2,y+20,x-6,y+24);

             line(x+7,y-30,x+7,y+10);

             line(x+3,y-24,x+7,y-28);
             line(x+11,y-24,x+7,y-28);

           setcolor(15);
             setfillstyle(1,15);
               pieslice(x+7,y+10,0,360,2);
               pieslice(x+7,y-50,0,360,2);
        }

         setcolor(7);
         setlinestyle(0,0,3);
           line(360,125,360,138);  /* Bottom Arrow */
           line(356,134,360,138);
           line(364,134,360,138);

         setcolor(14);
         settextstyle(2,0,4);
           outtextxy(335,140,\"Bottom\");

         if(count==pushed_element_count-1)
        {
           setcolor(7);
           setlinestyle(0,0,3);
            line(x+40,y+25,x+40,y+38);
            line(x+36,y+34,x+40,y+38);
            line(x+44,y+34,x+40,y+38);

           setcolor(14);
           settextstyle(2,0,4);
             outtextxy(x+40,y+40,\"Top\");
        }

         print=print->next;
         count++;

         if(count==0 || count==1 || count==2 || count==6 || count==7 ||
                 count==8 || count==12 || count==13 || count==14)
        x+=100;

         else if(count==3 || count==4 || count==5 || count==9 ||
             count==10 ||  count==11)
        x-=100;

         if(count==3 || count==9)
        {
           x=535;
           y+=60;
        }

         else if(count==6 || count==12)
        {
           x=335;
           y+=60;
        }

          if(count==15)
         break;
      }

       setlinestyle(0,0,0);
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //------------------------  waiting_for_input( )  ------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack ::waiting_for_input( )
    {
       do
      {
         setfillstyle(1,4);
           bar(51,440,99,445);

         setfillstyle(1,10);
           bar(101,440,149,445);

         setfillstyle(1,11);
           bar(151,440,199,445);

         setfillstyle(1,14);
           bar(201,440,249,445);

         delay(300);

         setfillpattern(fill_pattern,9);
           bar(51,440,99,445);

         delay(150);

           bar(101,440,149,445);

         delay(150);

           bar(151,440,199,445);

         delay(150);

           bar(201,440,249,445);

         delay(150);

         setfillstyle(1,4);
           bar(51,440,99,445);

         delay(150);

         setfillstyle(1,10);
           bar(101,440,149,445);

         delay(150);

         setfillstyle(1,11);
           bar(151,440,199,445);

         delay(150);

         setfillstyle(1,14);
           bar(201,440,249,445);
      }
       while(!kbhit( ));

       setfillpattern(fill_pattern,9);
     bar(51,440,249,445);
    }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //---------------------------  show_working( )  --------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack ::show_working( )
    {
       show_main_screen( );
       delay(1000);
       show_output_screen( );

       char ch;

       int selected=0;

       do
      {
         waiting_for_input( );
         ch=getch( );

         switch(ch)
        {
           case \'p\': push( );
                 break;

           case \'P\': push( );
                 break;

           case \'o\': pop( );
                 break;

           case \'O\': pop( );
                 break;

           case \'e\': selected=1;
                 break;

           case \'E\': selected=1;
                 break;
        }
      }
       while(!selected && int(ch)!=27);

       delay(500);
    }


 main( )
    {
       int driver=VGA;
       int mode=VGAHI;

       initgraph(&driver,&mode,\"..\\\\Bgi\");

       Double_ended_Linked_list_as_Stack  obj;

       obj.show_working( );

       closegraph( );

       return 0;
    }

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