C++ Programming Tutorial

 
 
 

Data File Structure Programs

Array

Insert, edit, delete, append, display, Srch. Insert, delete, merge, delete multiple occurrences Arrays as a Stack in graphics

Stack

Stack operations using array Stack using static memory allocation Stack using dynamic memory allocation Double ended link list as a stack Lnked list as a Stack Infix expr. to Postfix expr. Postfix expr. into an Infix expr. Arrays as a Stack in graphics Stack as an Arithmetic expr. Evaluater Graphical Rep. of Stack Stack to traverse - inodr, postodr, preodr

Queue

Queue using static memory allocation Queue using dynamic memory allocation Circular queue Linked list as a Queue Double Ended linked list as a Queue Graphical Rep. of Queue Arrays as a Linear Queue Array as a Circular Queue Arrays as a Linear Queue ( in graphics ) Arrays as a Circular Queue ( in graphics )

Linked List

Singly link list Circular linked list Doubly link list Linked list as a Queue Linked list as a Stack Double Ended linked list as a Queue Double Ended linked list as a Stack Infix to Postfix - Linked List as Stack Circular doubly link list Single Ended Linked List - Sorting in both odr Hashing - double ended Linked List Sort of link list

Tree

Linked List as a Binary Srch. Tree Set Class using Binary Srch. Tree Maximum depth of Binary Srch. Tree Minimum Spaning Tree Prims algo - minimum spanning tree Traverse binary tree - inodr, preodr, post Find number in binary Srch. tree display levell

Sorting

Bubble Sort Selection Sort Insertion Sort Radix Sort Merge Sort Quick Sort Heap Sort Linear Sort Shell Sort Topological Sort

Searching

Linear Srch. or Sequential Srch. Binary Search Breadth First Search Traversal Depth First Search Traversal Shortest Path-Given Source-Destination-Dijkstras

Hashing

Simple implementation of Hashing Hashing using double-ended Linked List Hashing using Mid-Square Method Example of Hashing n term of the fibonacci series using recursion

Recursion

Factorial of the given number using recursion Mystery of Towers of Hanoi using recursion
 
 

Image

 # include <iostream.h>
 # include  <fstream.h>
 # include   <string.h>
 # include    <stdio.h>
 # include    <conio.h>

 /**************************************************************************/
 //---------------------------------  Node  -------------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 class Node
 {
    public:
       int data;

       Node* Next;
       Node* Back;
 };


 # define MAX_ENTRIES  25

 Node* HashTable[MAX_ENTRIES]={NULL};
 Node* Top[MAX_ENTRIES]={NULL};

 /**************************************************************************/
 //------------------------  generate_hash_key( )  ------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 const int generate_hash_key(const int data)
 {
    return (data%MAX_ENTRIES);
 }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //--------------------------  insert_element( )  -------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void insert_element( )
 {
    int data;

    cout<<\"\\n\\n\\n\\t *********   New Element   ********* \"<<endl<<endl;
    cout<<\"\\t Enter a value : \";
    cin>>data;

    int index=generate_hash_key(data);

    Node* Entry=new Node;

    if(!Entry)
    {
       cout<<\"\\n\\n\\n\\t Fatal Error : Unable to allcate memory to stroe new element.\"<<endl;
       cout<<\"\\n\\n\\t\\t Pres any key to return to Menu. \";

       getch( );
       return;
    }

    if(HashTable[index]==NULL)
    {
       Entry->data=data;
       Entry->Next=NULL;
       Entry->Back=NULL;
       HashTable[index]=Entry;
       Top[index]=Entry;
    }

    else
    {
       Entry->data=data;
       Entry->Next=NULL;
       Entry->Back=Top[index];
       Top[index]->Next=Entry;
       Top[index]=Entry;
    }

    cout<<\"\\n\\n\\t\\t Pres any key to return to Menu. \";

    getch( );
 }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //--------------------------  delete_element( )  -------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void delete_element( )
 {
    int data;

    cout<<\"\\n\\n\\n\\t *********   Delete Element   ********* \"<<endl<<endl;
    cout<<\"\\t Enter a value : \";
    cin>>data;

    int flag=0;
    int index=generate_hash_key(data);

    Node* Print=HashTable[index];

    if(Print!=NULL)
    {
       while(Print!=NULL)
       {
      if(Print->data==data)
      {
         if(Print->Back==NULL)
         {
        Node* Temp=Print->Next;

        Temp->Back=NULL;
        HashTable[index]=Temp;

        delete Print;

        Print=Temp;
         }

         else if(Print->Next==NULL)
         {
        Top[index]=Print->Back;
        Top[index]->Next=NULL;

        delete Print;

        Print=Top[index];
         }

         else
         {
        Node* TempBack=Print->Back;
        Node* TempNext=Print->Next;

        TempBack->Next=TempNext;
        TempNext->Back=TempBack;

        delete Print;

        Print=TempNext;
         }

         flag++;
      }

      else
         Print=Print->Next;
       }

       if(flag)
      cout<<\"\\n\\n\\t ***  \"<<flag<<\" elements deleted.\";
    }

    if(!flag)
       cout<<\"\\n\\n\\t ***  The Element is not found.\"<<endl;

    cout<<\"\\n\\n\\t\\t Pres any key to return to Menu. \";

    getch( );
 }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //-------------------------  print_element( )  ---------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void print_element( )
 {
    clrscr( );

    cout<<\"\\n\\n\\t *****  HashTable & Data  *****\\n\"<<endl;

    Node* Print;

    for(int index=0;index<MAX_ENTRIES;index++)
    {
       if(index<10)
      cout<<\"\\t HashTable[0\"<<index<<\"] : \";

       else
      cout<<\"\\t HashTable[\"<<index<<\"] : \";

       Print=HashTable[index];

       if(Print!=NULL)
       {
      while(Print!=NULL)
      {
         cout<<Print->data;

         Print=Print->Next;

         if(Print!=NULL)
        cout<<\" , \";
      }

      cout<<endl;
       }

       else
      cout<<\"-\"<<endl;
    }

    cout<<\"\\n\\n\\t\\t Pres any key to return to Menu. \";

    getch( );
 }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //-------------------------  search_element( )  --------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void search_element( )
 {
    int data;

    cout<<\"\\n\\n\\n\\t *****  Search an Element  *****\\n\"<<endl;
    cout<<\"\\t Enter a value : \";
    cin>>data;

    int flag=0;
    int index=generate_hash_key(data);

    Node* Print=HashTable[index];

    if(Print!=NULL)
    {
       while(Print!=NULL)
       {
      if(Print->data==data)
         flag++;

      Print=Print->Next;
       }

       if(flag)
      cout<<\"\\n\\n\\t ***  The Search Element is found \"<<flag<<\" times.\";
    }

    if(!flag)
       cout<<\"\\n\\n\\t ***  The Search Element is not found.\"<<endl;

    cout<<\"\\n\\n\\n\\t\\t Pres any key to return to Menu. \";

    getch( );
 }

 /**************************************************************************/
 //---------------------------  show_working( )  --------------------------//
 /**************************************************************************/

 void show_working( )
 {
    char Key=NULL;

    do
    {
       clrscr( );

       gotoxy(10,5);
       cout<<\"**********   Implementation of Hashing   **********\"<<endl;

       gotoxy(10,8);
       cout<<\"Select one of the listed operation :\"<<endl;

       gotoxy(15,10);
       cout<<\"- Press \\\'I\\\' to Insert an Element\"<<endl;

       gotoxy(15,12);
       cout<<\"- Press \\\'D\\\' to Delete an Element\"<<endl;

       gotoxy(15,14);
       cout<<\"- Press \\\'P\\\' to Print the HashTable & Data\"<<endl;

       gotoxy(15,16);
       cout<<\"- Press \\\'S\\\' to Search an Element\"<<endl;

       gotoxy(15,18);
       cout<<\"- Press \\\'E\\\' to Exit\"<<endl;

       Input:

       gotoxy(10,22);
       cout<<\"                      \";

       gotoxy(10,22);
       cout<<\"Enter your Choice : \";

       Key=getche( );

       if(int(Key)==27 || Key==\'e\' || Key==\'E\')
      break;

       else if(Key==\'i\' || Key==\'I\')
      insert_element( );

       else if(Key==\'d\' || Key==\'D\')
      delete_element( );

       else if(Key==\'p\' || Key==\'P\')
      print_element( );

       else if(Key==\'s\' || Key==\'S\')
      search_element( );

       else
      goto Input;
    }
    while(1);
 }


 int main( )
 {
    textmode(C4350);

    show_working( );

    return 0;
 }