C++ Programming Tutorial

 
 
 
 
 # include <iostream.h>
 # include <graphics.h>
 # include   <stdlib.h>
 # include    <conio.h>

 # define MAX_VERTICES  10
 # define MAX_EDGES     15


 //-------------------------------  Vertex  ------------------------------//


 class Vertex
 {
    public:
       int x;
       int y;
       int label;

    private:
       char Label[5];

    public:
       Vertex( )   {  }
       ~Vertex( )  {  }

       void SetVertex(const int,const int,const int);
       void ShowVertex( );
 };


 //-------------------------------  Edge  --------------------------------//


 class Edge
 {
    public:
       int weight;

       Vertex V1;
       Vertex V2;

    private:
       char Weight[5];

    public:
       Edge( )   { }
       ~Edge( )  { }

       void SetEdge(const Vertex,const Vertex,const int);
       void ShowEdge( );
 };



 //------------------------  Function Definitions  -----------------------//




 //----------------------------  SetVertex( )  ---------------------------//


 void Vertex::SetVertex(const int _x,const int _y,const int _label)
 {
    x=_x;
    y=_y;
    label=_label;

    itoa((label+1),Label,10);
 }


 //----------------------------  ShowVertex( )  --------------------------//


 void Vertex::ShowVertex( )
 {
    setcolor(1);
    setfillstyle(1,1);
      pieslice(x,y,0,360,10);

    setcolor(9);
      circle(x,y,10);

    setcolor(15);
    settextstyle(2,0,4);

    if(label<9)
       outtextxy((x-2),(y-6),Label);

    else if(label>=9)
       outtextxy((x-5),(y-6),Label);
 }


 //-----------------------------  SetEdge( )  ----------------------------//


 void Edge::SetEdge(const Vertex _V1,const Vertex _V2,const int _weight)
 {
    V1=_V1;
    V2=_V2;

    weight=_weight;

    itoa(weight,Weight,10);
 }


 //----------------------------  ShowEdge( )  ----------------------------//


 void Edge::ShowEdge( )
 {
    setlinestyle(0,0,3);

    setcolor(11);
      line(V1.x,V1.y,V2.x,V2.y);

    setlinestyle(0,0,0);

    V1.ShowVertex( );
    V2.ShowVertex( );

    int x=(((V1.x+V2.x)/2)-6);
    int y=(((V1.y+V2.y)/2)-8);

    setcolor(12);
    settextstyle(2,0,7);
      outtextxy(x,y,Weight);
      outtextxy((x+1),y,Weight);
      outtextxy((x+1),(y+1),Weight);
 }



 //------------------------------  main( )  ------------------------------//



 int main( )
 {
    textmode(C4350);

    int driver=VGA;
    int mode=VGAHI;
    int error_code;

    initgraph(&driver,&mode,\"..\\\\Bgi\");

    error_code=graphresult( );

    if(error_code!=grOk)
    {
       restorecrtmode( );
       textmode(BW80);
       clrscr( );

       cout<<\" \\n Fatal Error  : Graphic Driver not initialized\"<<endl;
       cout<<\" Error Reason : \"<<grapherrormsg(error_code)<<endl;
       cout<<\" \\n Press any key to exit...\";

       getch( );
       exit(1);
    }

    /***************************************************************

            Sample Input
            ************

         Vertices  ,  Edges
            6  ,  10

           Vertex_1 , Vertex_2
            320 , 100
            170 , 200
            320 , 250
            470 , 200
            220 , 400
            420 , 400

          Vertxe_1 ---->  Vertex_2 ,  Weight
            1  ---->  2        ,  6
            1  ---->  4        ,  5
            1  ---->  3        ,  1
            2  ---->  3        ,  5
            2  ---->  5        ,  3
            3  ---->  5        ,  6
            3  ---->  6        ,  4
            3  ---->  4        ,  5
            4  ---->  5        ,  2
            5  ---->  5        ,  6

         Answer : 15

    ***************************************************************/

    int vertices=0;
    int edges=0;

    cout<<\"*******************  Input  ********************\"<<endl;
    cout<<\"Enter the Total Number of Vertices (1-10) = \";
    cin>>vertices;

    vertices=((vertices<1)?1:vertices);
    vertices=((vertices>10)?10:vertices);

    cout<<\"Enter the Total Number of Edges (1-15) = \";
    cin>>edges;

    edges=((edges<0)?0:edges);
    edges=((edges>15)?15:edges);

    Vertex  V[MAX_VERTICES];
    Edge    E[MAX_EDGES];

    cleardevice( );

    setcolor(15);
      rectangle(45,85,595,415);

    int x;
    int y;

    for(int count=0;count<vertices;count++)
    {
       gotoxy(1,1);
       cout<<\"*******  XY-Coordinates of Vertex-\"<<(count+1)<<\"  *******\";

       gotoxy(1,2);
       cout<<\"Enter value of x-coordinate (060-580) = \";
       cin>>x;

       x=((x<60)?60:x);
       x=((x>580)?580:x);

       gotoxy(1,3);
       cout<<\"Enter value of y-coordinate (100-400) = \";
       cin>>y;

       y=((y<100)?100:y);
       y=((y>400)?400:y);

       V[count].SetVertex(x,y,count);
       V[count].ShowVertex( );

       gotoxy(1,1);
       cout<<\"                                                       \";
       gotoxy(1,2);
       cout<<\"                                                       \";
       gotoxy(1,3);
       cout<<\"                                                       \";
    }

    gotoxy(1,28);
    cout<<\" V = { \";

    for(count=1;count<vertices;count++)
       cout<<count<<\",\";

    cout<<count<<\" } \";

    gotoxy(1,30);
    cout<<\" E = { \";

    x=wherex( );

    int v1;
    int v2;
    int weight;

    for(count=0;count<edges;count++)
    {
       gotoxy(1,1);
       cout<<\"******  Vertex Numbers for Edge-\"<<(count+1)<<\"  ******\";

       gotoxy(1,2);
       cout<<\"Enter the Vertice-1 (1-\"<<vertices<<\")  = \";
       cin>>v1;

       v1=((v1<1)?1:v1);
       v1=((v1>vertices)?vertices:v1);

       gotoxy(1,3);
       cout<<\"Enter the Vertice-2 (1-\"<<vertices<<\")  = \";
       cin>>v2;

       v2=((v2<1)?1:v2);
       v2=((v2>vertices)?vertices:v2);

       gotoxy(1,4);
       cout<<\"Enter the Edge Weight = \";
       cin>>weight;

       weight=((weight<=0)?0:weight);

       E[count].SetEdge(V[(v1-1)],V[(v2-1)],weight);
       E[count].ShowEdge( );

       gotoxy(x,30);
       cout<<\"(\"<<v1<<\",\"<<v2<<\")\";

       if(count<(edges-1))
      cout<<\",\";

       x=wherex( );

       gotoxy(1,1);
       cout<<\"                                                     \";
       gotoxy(1,2);
       cout<<\"                                                     \";
       gotoxy(1,3);
       cout<<\"                                                      \";
       gotoxy(1,4);
       cout<<\"                                                      \";
    }

    gotoxy(x,30);
    cout<<\" } \";

    getch( );
    cleardevice( );

    gotoxy(5,3);
    cout<<\" ********************  Applying PRIMS Algorithm  ********************\";

    setcolor(15);
      rectangle(45,85,595,415);

    for(count=0;count<vertices;count++)
       V[count].ShowVertex( );

    int U[MAX_VERTICES];
    int vertex_1[MAX_VERTICES];
    int vertex_2[MAX_VERTICES];
    int edge_weights[MAX_VERTICES];
    int resultant_weights[MAX_VERTICES];

    int flag_1=0;
    int flag_2=0;
    int u_count=1;
    int temp_vertex=0;
    int temp_vertex_1=0;
    int temp_vertex_2=0;
    int lowest_edge_weight=0;

    U[0]=0;

    do
    {
       count=0;

       for(int i=0;i<vertices;i++)
       {
      vertex_1[i]=0;
      vertex_2[i]=0;
      edge_weights[i]=0;
       }

       for(i=0;i<u_count;i++)
       {
      flag_1=0;

      for(int j=0;j<edges;j++)
      {
         if(E[j].V1.label==U[i] || E[j].V2.label==U[i])
         {
        flag_2=0;

        if(E[j].V1.label!=U[i])
        {
           temp_vertex=E[j].V1.label;
           temp_vertex_1=E[j].V2.label;
        }

        else
        {
           temp_vertex=E[j].V2.label;
           temp_vertex_1=E[j].V1.label;
        }

        for(int k=0;k<u_count;k++)
        {
           if(temp_vertex==U[k])
           {
              flag_2=-1;

              break;
           }
        }

        if(flag_2!=-1)
        {
           if(flag_1==0 || lowest_edge_weight>E[j].weight)
           {
              lowest_edge_weight=E[j].weight;
              temp_vertex_2=temp_vertex;
              flag_1=1;
           }
        }
         }
      }

      if(flag_1==1)
      {
         vertex_2[count]=temp_vertex_2;
         vertex_1[count]=temp_vertex_1;
         edge_weights[count]=lowest_edge_weight;

         count++;
      }
       }

       flag_1=0;

       for(i=0;i<count;i++)
       {
      if(flag_1==0 || lowest_edge_weight>edge_weights[i])
      {
         lowest_edge_weight=edge_weights[i];
         temp_vertex_1=vertex_1[i];
         temp_vertex_2=vertex_2[i];
         flag_1=1;
      }
       }

       if(flag_1==1)
       {
      U[u_count]=temp_vertex_2;
      u_count++;

      for(i=0;i<edges;i++)
      {
         if((E[i].V1.label==temp_vertex_1 && E[i].V2.label==temp_vertex_2) ||
        (E[i].V1.label==temp_vertex_2 && E[i].V2.label==temp_vertex_1) )
         {
        E[i].ShowEdge( );
        resultant_weights[(u_count-2)]=E[i].weight;

        gotoxy(48,28);
        cout<<\"Press any Key to Continue...\";

        getch( );

        gotoxy(48,28);
        cout<<\"                            \";

        break;
         }
      }
       }

       else
      break;
    }
    while(1);

    gotoxy(1,1);
    cout<<\"                                                                         \"<<endl;
    cout<<\"                                                                         \"<<endl;
    cout<<\"                                                                         \"<<endl;
    cout<<\"                                                                         \"<<endl;
    cout<<\"                                                                         \"<<endl;

    gotoxy(1,1);
    cout<<\"*******************  Result  ********************\"<<endl;
    cout<<\" U = { \";

    for(count=0;count<(u_count-1);count++)
       cout<<(U[count]+1)<<\",\";

    cout<<(U[count]+1)<<\" }\"<<endl<<endl;
    cout<<\" Total Cost = \";

    int cost=0;

    for(count=0;count<(u_count-1);count++)
    {
       cost+=resultant_weights[count];

       if(count<(u_count-2))
      cout<<resultant_weights[count]<<\"+\";
    }

    cout<<resultant_weights[(count-1)]<<\" =  \"<<cost;

    gotoxy(54,28);
    cout<<\"Press any Key to Exit.\";

    getch( );
    closegraph( );
    return 0;
 }