Assembly Language Tutorial

 
 
 

Instructions

Input - Output Instructions

Display a character Read a character and display it on new line Display string Read digit, compute and display sum w/o variable Read digit, display difference w/o variable Read digit, compute, display sum using variable Read digit, display difference using variable Convert lower case letter in to upper case Read character, display in new line - user prompt Read 1st, middle, last initial - down left margin Read one hex digit, display next line in decimal Display 10*10 solid box asterisk - INT 21H and 9H Read 3 char show in middle of 11*11 box, beep comp

Flow Control Instructions

Print ASCII characters Print counting from 0 to 9 Print upper case letters from A to Z Print lower case letters from a to z in reverse Read letter print if it is \'?\' - simulation of if Read char print smallest - simulation of if-else Positive, negative num- simulation of switch-case Print upper case char - simulation of if-else then Simulation of if-else then structure Print ASCII characters - for loop simulation Print upper case A to Z - while loop simulation Print upper case A to Z - Do while loop simulation Read letters display in next line in alpha order Display digit in next line if fail prompt message Read hex digit display on next line in decimal Display capital letter in string alphabetically Show longest sequence consecutive alphabetically

Logic - Shift - Rotate Instructions

Convert upper to lower case - OR logic instruction Convert lower to upper - AND logic instruction Display even or odd number - TEST instruction Multiply content of AL by 8 - SHL instruction Divide content of AL by 4 - SHR instruction Store binary- BX,count bit value 1 w/o changing BX Read binary num, reverse its bit pattern Read binary number store in BX and display Read char- show ASCII in binary- 1 bit in ASC code Read char print ASCII in HEX till- carriage return Read HEX number and print in binary next line Read binary number and print in HEX next line Read 2 binary number and print its sum in binary Read 2 unsigned HEX num and print their sum Read string of decimal digit print sum in HEX Read str of char ter by CR show reverse order Read character using procedure goto next line Binary form & reverse bit of num - procedures Product by ADD, SHIFT instruction - procedure Display text with letters in each word reversed Validate expression READ store bin num in AX, RANDOM, WRITE

Multiplication - Division Instructions

Print factorial in binary form - MUL instruction Print num decimal form - DIV, OUTDEC proc Print factorial in decimal form - MUL, DIV instru Print num next line - proc for DECIMAL i/o Proc INDEC and OUTDEC, handle BackSpace key Proc INDEC and OUTDEC - files - INCLUDE instru Print factorial in dec form - MUL, DIV instruction Proc INDEC, OUTDEC - Handle OverFlow Read time in seconds display time HH:MM:SS Express - quarter, dime, nickel, pennie Read fraction form M/N print N decimal place GCD of two integers M and N

Arrays - Addressing Modes

Sum of array - sum in AX - Register Indirect Mode Initialize array with 0 using DUP instruction Enter an array of size 10 and display it Declare, initialize, print 2D array of size 5x5 Enter 2D array of 5x5 in row major order, print Print 3rd R x 4th C using Register Indirect Mode Display reversing array contents using STACK Reverse content of array - Register Indirect Mode Sort array using Bubble Sort method Sort an array using Select Sort method Print 2D array of size 4x5 in row major order Print 2D array of size 4x5 in column major order 2D arr clear 3rd row 4th column - Based Index Mode Compute class average on each exam Print name each student, average of 4 exams Insert single characters into array - it is sorted

String Instructions

Copy string into another using MOVSB, REP Read string, stores in variable using STOSB Display string using instruction LODSB Store display str - proc READ_STR, DISP_STR Count no of vowels constants - SCASB, REPNE

General Programs

Get and display the current system time
 
 
 .MODEL SMALL
 .STACK 100H

 .DATA
   PROMPT_1  DB  0DH,0AH,\'Enter the first Hex number ( 0000 - FFFF ) : $\'
   PROMPT_2  DB  0DH,0AH,\'Enter the second Hex number ( 0000 - FFFF ) : $\'
   PROMPT_3  DB  0DH,0AH,\'The SUM of given Hex numbers in Hex form is : $\'
   ILLEGAL   DB  0DH,0AH,\'Illegal character. Try again.$\'

   COUNT     DB  ?
   VALUE     DW  ?

 .CODE
   MAIN PROC
     MOV AX, @DATA                ; initialize DS
     MOV DS, AX

     JMP @START_2                 ; jump to label @START_2

     @START_1:                    ; jump label
       LEA DX, ILLEGAL            ; load and display the string ILLEGAL 
       MOV AH, 9
       INT 21H

     @START_2:                    ; jump label
       LEA DX, PROMPT_1           ; load and display the string PROMPT_1
       MOV AH, 9
       INT 21H

       XOR BX, BX                 ; clear BX
       MOV COUNT, 30H             ; initialize loop counter

     @START_3:                    ; jump label
       MOV AH, 1                  ; set input function
       INT 21H                    ; read a character

       CMP AL, 0DH                ; compare AL with CR
       JNE @SKIP_1                ; jump to label @SKIP_1 if AL!=CR

       CMP COUNT, 30H             ; compare COUNT with 0
       JBE @START_1               ; jump to label @START_1 if COUNT<=0
       JMP @END_1                 ; jump to label @END

       @SKIP_1:                   ; jump label

       CMP AL, \"A\"                ; compare AL with \"A\"
       JB @DECIMAL_1              ; jump to label @DECIMAL_1 if AL<A

       CMP AL, \"F\"                ; compare AL with \"F\"
       JA @START_1                ; jump to label @START_1 if AL>F
       ADD AL, 09H                ; add 9 to AL
       JMP @OK_1                  ; jump to label @OK_1

       @DECIMAL_1:                ; jump label
         CMP AL, 30H              ; compare AL with 0
         JB @START_1              ; jump to label @START_1 if AL<0

         CMP AL, 39H              ; compare AL with 9
         JA @START_1              ; jump to label @START_1 if AL>9

       @OK_1:                     ; jump label

       INC COUNT                  ; increment the COUNT variable

       AND AL, 0FH                ; convert the ascii into binary code

       MOV CL, 4                  ; set CL=4
       SHL AL, CL                 ; shift AL towards left by 4 positions

       MOV CX, 4                  ; set CX=4

       @LOOP_1:                   ; loop label
         SHL AL, 1                ; shift AL towards left by 1 position
         RCL BX, 1                ; rotate BX towards left by 1 position
                                  ; through carry
       LOOP @LOOP_1               ; jump to label @LOOP_1 if CX!=0

       CMP COUNT, 34H             ; compare COUNT with 4
       JE @END_1                  ; jump to label @END_1 if COUNT=4
       JMP @START_3               ; jump to label @START_3

       @END_1:                    ; jump label

       MOV VALUE, BX              ; set VALUE=BX

       LEA DX, PROMPT_2           ; load and display the string PROMPT_2
       MOV AH, 9
       INT 21H

       XOR BX, BX                 ; clear BX
       MOV COUNT, 30H             ; initialize loop counter

       @START_4:                  ; jump label
         MOV AH, 1                ; set input function
         INT 21H                  ; read a character

         CMP AL, 0DH              ; compare AL with CR
         JNE @SKIP_2              ; jump to label @SKIP_2 if AL!=CR

         CMP COUNT, 30H           ; compare COUNT with 0
         JBE @START_1             ; jump to label @START_1 if COUNT<=0
         JMP @END_2               ; jump to label @END_2

         @SKIP_2:                 ; jump label

         CMP AL, \"A\"              ; compare AL with \"A\"
         JB @DECIMAL_2            ; jump to label @DECIMAL_2 if AL<A

         CMP AL, \"F\"              ; compare AL with \"F\"
         JA @JUMP                 ; jump to label @JUMP if AL>F
         ADD AL, 09H              ; add 9 to AL
         JMP @OK_2                ; jump to label @OK_2

         @DECIMAL_2:              ; jump label
           CMP AL, 30H            ; compare AL with 0
           JB @JUMP               ; jump to label @JUMP if AL<0

           CMP AL, 39H            ; compare AL with 9
           JA @JUMP               ; jump to label @JUMP if AL>9
           JMP @OK_2              ; jump to label @OK_2 

         @JUMP:                   ; jump label
           JMP @START_1           ; jump to label @START_1

         @OK_2:                   ; jump label

         INC COUNT                ; increment the COUNT variable

         AND AL, 0FH              ; convert the ascii into binary code

         MOV CL, 4                ; set CL=4
         SHL AL, CL               ; shift AL towards left by 4 positions

         MOV CX, 4                ; set CX=4

         @LOOP_2:                 ; loop label
           SHL AL, 1              ; shift AL towards left by 1 position
           RCL BX, 1              ; rotate BX towards left by 1 position
                                  ; through carry
         LOOP @LOOP_2             ; jump to label @LOOP_2 if CX!=0

         CMP COUNT, 34H           ; compare COUNT with 4
         JE @END_2                ; jump to label @END_2 if COUNT=4
         JMP @START_4             ; jump to label @START_4

       @END_2:                    ; jump label

     LEA DX, PROMPT_3             ; load and display the string PROMPT_3
     MOV AH, 9
     INT 21H

     ADD BX, VALUE                ; add BX and VALUE
     JNC @SKIP                    ; jump to label @SKIP if CF=1
     MOV AH, 2                    ; set output function
     MOV DL, 31H                  ; set DL=1
     INT 21H                      ; print a character

     @SKIP:                       ; jump label

     MOV COUNT, 30H               ; set COUNT=0

     @LOOP_3:                     ; loop label
       XOR DL, DL                 ; clear DL
       MOV CX, 4                  ; set CX=4

       @LOOP_4:                   ; loop label
         SHL BX, 1                ; shift BX towards left by 1 position
         RCL DL, 1                ; rotate DL towards left by 1 position
                                  ; through carry
       LOOP @LOOP_4               ; jump to label @LOOP_4 if CX!=0

       MOV AH, 2                  ; set output function

       CMP DL, 9                  ; compare DL with 9
       JBE @NUMERIC_DIGIT         ; jump to label @NUMERIC_DIGIT if DL<=9
       SUB DL, 9                  ; convert it to number i.e. 1,2,3,4,5,6
       OR DL, 40H                 ; convert number to letter i.e. A,B...F
       JMP @DISPLAY               ; jump to label @DISPLAY

       @NUMERIC_DIGIT:            ; jump label
         OR DL, 30H               ; convert decimal to ascii code

       @DISPLAY:                  ; jump label
         INT 21H                  ; print the character

       INC COUNT                  ; increment COUNT variable
       CMP COUNT, 34H             ; compare COUNT with 4
       JNE @LOOP_3                ; jump to label @LOOP_3 if COUNT!=4

     @END:                        ; jump label

     MOV AH, 4CH                  ; return control to DOS
     INT 21H
   MAIN ENDP
 END MAIN